CLOZE TEST SET-2

CLOZE TEST SET-2

30895   08-Apr-2018, Sun

 

Directions (Q.)- In the following passage there are blanks, each of which has been numbered. These numbers are printed below the passage and against each, five words are suggested, one of which fits the blank appropriately. Find out the appropriate word in each case.

 

 

Cloze Test -1

 

During the 1990s, the idea of a UCC was extensively criticized by women’s groups who feared the unspoken intentions of the Hindu Right in advocating it. An influential (1) of argument questioned public perceptions and assumptions about personal law, namely: Hindu personal law has been successfully reformed; in sharp contrast, Muslim law remains uncodified and imposes the worst (2) on Muslim women; therefore, Hindu personal law should be made the basis for a UCC. There was much to be questioned in such assumptions. For instance, it was pointed out that, historically, Muslim personal law was way ahead of its Hindu (3) since marriage was understood to be a contract between individuals with built-in provision for divorce, while Hindu law languished within notions of (4) , the absence of personhood for Hindu wives, the vagaries of the Hindu Undivided Family, and so on. Much was made of a Census study on marriage and polygamy (which had been cited in the famous ‘Towards Equality’ report of 1974 on the status of Indian women) which showed that the (5) of polygamy (usually bigamy) was in fact greater among Hindus than Muslims. Moreover, such wives had no rights under the reformed Hindu law, unlike the rights available to Muslim women under polygamy. Now that we are once again faced with the spectra of a UCC being (6) on us, this represents an opportunity to take stock from where we are today. We believe that there are three main lessons to be learnt from our recent past. First, we must stop making dubious comparisons between Muslim and Hindu women. Having studied the comparative data on polygamy that continue to be (7) , we noticed the following. One, the data come from a special sample survey conducted by the Census of India in 1960 of one lakh women, which is explicitly acknowledged to be a non-representative sample — that is, it may be suggestive, but cannot stand for entities like India, Hindu women or Muslim women. Two, the survey includes women who were married between 1940 and 1960 — which means that 15 of these 20 years were prior to the (8) in 1955 of the Hindu Code Bill that outlawed polygamy. And three, the overall incidence of polygamy reported for Hindu and Muslim women is 5.7 per cent and 5.6 per cent, respectively. In short, these data do not prove that there was more bigamy among Hindu women than Muslim women even in 1960, let alone in more recent times. (We may note in passing that the authors of the ‘Towards Equality’ report were (9) concerned about the high incidence of polygamy among tribal groups, where rates were (10) over time and had reached 18 per cent during 1951-60.)

 

1.

1) wedge                        2) slice                        3) slab                         4) batch               5) strand

2.

1) vulnerabilities           2) carefulness             3) guard                      4) preservation    5) flow

3.

1) contradictory             2) antipodal               3) counterpart             4) antipodean      5) contradictory

4.

1) rigid                           2) sacrament               3) profane                   4) ungodly          5) unsacred

5.

1) perceptual                  2) incidence                3) conjoin                   4) devastated      5) inoculate

6.

1) foisted                       2) allowance               3) assent                      4) concession      5) sufferance

7.

1) discourage                 2) privilege                 3) endorsement           4) cited                5) denounce

8.

1) indictment                 2) enactment               3) repeal                      4) abysmal          5) predicament

9.

1) specially                    2) generally                3) logically                 4) particularly     5) similarly

10.

1) tacit                           2) stoic                        3) increasing               4) fluctuate         5) decreed

 

CLOZE TEST – 2

 

State universities produce over 95 per cent of the nation’s graduates, including from the private college system through the (1) route. Yet they have little presence in bodies that frame policies and decisions regarding regulation or funding. All the major decisions and initiatives only deal with the Central institutions, with the Centre also seeing some hope from the emerging private universities which are driven purely by money power and political (2) . With the gap in quality of education and research widening between the Central and State institutions, the dream of India becoming the R&D hub of the world, of expanding the manufacturing sector, of creating over ten million jobs annually, or becoming the knowledge superpower is becoming harder to realise. Ironically, the States do not seem to realize the (3) of the problem either; the most they do is to ask the Centre to locate the next, say, IIT in their State. In this context, it is important for the States to (4) their role in higher education.
The Central government’s virtual abandoning of its responsibility to improve higher education and research in the country — and not just in institutions that are under its wing — is a(5) that is unlikely to change. The only option for the States is to take greater charge to improve the quality of these institutions.This would mean that States will have to tie up closely plans on improving higher education with economic planning and infrastructure. Engineering and (6) education, in particular, should have a direct connection and (7) to the State’s industrial, manufacturing and other productive activities.There are many ways to do this. For instance, let’s imagine an engineering college with a museum or exhibition displaying the natural resources, energy and ecology, industrial and agricultural products and services, and human skills and technologies of the surrounding area within, say, a 25 km radius. A significant part of the education and research syllabus in this college could be built around this location, its industry and agriculture. The institution and its programme could (8) closely address the economic and industrial context and needs of that area. Of course, this does not mean that all (9) must be on the local; it is possible to do this without losing sight of the demands of the global market and the need to keep education broad-based and (10).

 

1.

1) discordant                  2) differing                 3) affiliation   4) bickering                   5) conflicting

2.

1) detraction                  2) opposition              3) position      4) patronage                   5) antagonism

3.

1) eminent                     2) opaque                    3) blur             4) depth                       5) shallow

4.

1) redefine                     2) define                     3) indeed         4) confine                   5) inced

5.

1) prevalence                 2) focused                   3) trend           4) trade                       5) tuned

6.

1) dissension                  2) dissonance              3) agreement   4) disagreement               5) managerial

7.

1) preside                       2) militate                   3) stalagmite   4) relevance                5) reverence

8.

1) peak                           2) likewise                  3) certainty     4) consistent               5) amity

9.

1) restriction                  2) affiliation               3) limitations  4) concentration         5) focused

10.

1) liberal                       2) conservative           3) narrow        4) narrow-minded       5) synoptic

 

 

CLOZE TEST – 3

 

In addition to mergers, the government could consider other (1) . The loss of Rs.18,000 crore incurred by PSBs has implications for the national (2) . On the one hand, the government foregoes revenues through dividends and profits, while on the other it would need to provide resources through enhanced expenditure to bail out loss-making banks from a pool of resources (3) from a small subset of population — taxpayers. The government could consider setting standards for the banking industry — privatising some of the inefficient PSBs while (4) profit-making ones. This implies that the 60-year-old policy of social control needs to be reviewed. One of the objectives of social banking under which private sector banks were nationalised in 1969 and 1980 was to ensure banking (5) in rural areas and to avoid a nexus between industry and banking.In the past two years, the Central government has been successful in (6) a bank account in every household under the Prime Minister’s Jan-Dhan Yojana. The advancement in technology is already making possible safe banking (7) through mobile phones. In a digital India, and with widespread availability of credit rating, bank accounts, Aadhaar information and mobile phones, technology can help in eliminating human intervention in sanctioning and extending credit to the borrower. Small banks and payment banks are expected to penetrate deep into rural India, and therefore the need for a brick-and-mortar commercial bank branch is (8).Privatising loss-making PSBs will have a (9) effect on the staff and management of such banks. Also, privatising a few loss-making PSBs will ensure that market discipline forces them to rectify their strategy, and this will have a (10) effect on other PSBs. As the Planning Commission was a vestige of the socialist era, so is social banking. It is time to reconsider whether PSBs, all 27 of them, are really required to serve the purpose of social banking in our country and at what cost.

 

1.

1) inclusions                  2) alternatives 3) compulsions           4) constraints                 5) obligations

2.

1) exchequer                  2) passing       3) damage                   4) demise                       5) disadvantage

3.

1) separated                   2) dispersed    3) garnered                 4) scattered                 5) eminent

4.

1) discordant                  2) nasty           3) grating                    4) pleasing                  5) rewarding

5.

1) departure                   2) egress         3) evacuation              4) penetration             5) perception

6.

1) ensuring                     2) assuming    3) relying                    4) decline                    5) pertaining

7.

1) denial                         2) transaction  3) assumption             4) rejection                 5) refusal

8.

1) binding                      2) rising          3) diminishing            4) fluctuating              5) improving

9.

1) surrounding               2) incentive     3) encouragement       4) catalyst                   5) deterrent

10.

1) tidy                            2) ripple          3) straighten               4) compose                 5) align

 

 

CLOZE TEST – 4

 

State universities produce over 95 per cent of the nation’s graduates, including from the private college system through the (1) route. Yet they have little presence in bodies that frame policies and decisions regarding regulation or funding. All the major decisions and initiatives only deal with the Central institutions, with the Centre also seeing some hope from the emerging private universities which are driven purely by money power and political (2) . With the gap in quality of education and research widening between the Central and State institutions, the dream of India becoming the R&D hub of the world, of expanding the manufacturing sector, of creating over ten million jobs annually, or becoming the knowledge superpower is becoming harder to realise.Ironically, the States do not seem to realise the (3) of the problem either; the most they do is to ask the Centre to locate the next, say, IIT in their State. In this context, it is important for the States to (4) their role in higher education.
The Central government’s virtual abandoning of its responsibility to improve higher education and research in the country — and not just in institutions that are under its wing — is a(5) that is unlikely to change. The only option for the States is to take greater charge to improve the quality of these institutions.This would mean that States will have to tie up closely plans on improving higher education with economic planning and infrastructure. Engineering and (6) education, in particular, should have a direct connection and (7) to the State’s industrial, manufacturing and other productive activities.There are many ways to do this. For instance, let’s imagine an engineering college with a museum or exhibition displaying the natural resources, energy and ecology, industrial and agricultural products and services, and human skills and technologies of the surrounding area within, say, a 25 km radius. A significant part of the education and research syllabus in this college could be built around this location, its industry and agriculture. The institution and its programme could (8) closely address the economic and industrial context and needs of that area. Of course, this does not mean that all (9) must be on the local; it is possible to do this without losing sight of the demands of the global market and the need to keep education broad-based and (10).

 

1.

1) discordant      2) differing                 3) affiliation   4) bickering                5) conflicting

2.

1) detraction      2) opposition              3) position      4) patronage                5) antagonism

3.

1) eminent         2) opaque                    3) blur             4) depth                       5) shallow

4.

1) redefine         2) define                     3) indeed         4) confine                   5) inced

5.

1) prevalence     2) focused                   3) trend           4) trade                       5) tuned

6.

1) dissension      2) dissonance              3) agreement   4) disagreement          5) managerial

7.

1) preside           2) militate                   3) stalagmite   4) relevance                5) reverence

8.

1) peak               2) likewise                  3) certainty     4) consistent               5) amity

9.

1) restriction      2) affiliation               3) limitations  4) concentration         5) focused

10.

1) liberal           2) conservative           3) narrow        4) narrow-minded       5) synoptic

 

 

 

CLOZE TEST – 5

 

In addition to mergers, the government could consider other (1) . The loss of Rs.18,000 crore incurred by PSBs has implications for the national (2) . On the one hand, the government foregoes revenues through dividends and profits, while on the other it would need to provide resources through enhanced expenditure to bail out loss-making banks from a pool of resources (3) from a small subset of population — taxpayers. The government could consider setting standards for the banking industry — privatising some of the inefficient PSBs while (4) profit-making ones. This implies that the 60-year-old policy of social control needs to be reviewed. One of the objectives of social banking under which private sector banks were nationalised in 1969 and 1980 was to ensure banking (5) in rural areas and to avoid a nexus between industry and banking.In the past two years, the Central government has been successful in (6) a bank account in every household under the Prime Minister’s Jan-Dhan Yojana. The advancement in technology is already making possible safe banking (7) through mobile phones. In a digital India, and with widespread availability of credit rating, bank accounts, Aadhaar information and mobile phones, technology can help in eliminating human intervention in sanctioning and extending credit to the borrower. Small banks and payment banks are expected to penetrate deep into rural India, and therefore the need for a brick-and-mortar commercial bank branch is (8).Privatising loss-making PSBs will have a (9) effect on the staff and management of such banks. Also, privatising a few loss-making PSBs will ensure that market discipline forces them to rectify their strategy, and this will have a (10) effect on other PSBs. As the Planning Commission was a vestige of the socialist era, so is social banking. It is time to reconsider whether PSBs, all 27 of them, are really required to serve the purpose of social banking in our country and at what cost.

 

1.

1) inclusions      2) alternatives             3) compulsions           4) constraints                 5) obligations

2.

1) exchequer      2) passing                   3) damage                   4) demise                       5) disadvantage

3.

1) separated       2) dispersed                3) garnered                 4) scattered                 5) eminent

4.

1) discordant      2) nasty                       3) grating                    4) pleasing                  5) rewarding

5.

1) departure       2) egress                     3) evacuation              4) penetration             5) perception

6.

1) ensuring         2) assuming                3) relying                    4) decline                    5) pertaining

7.

1) denial             2) transaction              3) assumption             4) rejection                 5) refusal

8.

1) binding          2) rising                      3) diminishing            4) fluctuating              5) improving

9.

1) surrounding   2) incentive                 3) encouragement       4) catalyst                   5) deterrent

10.

1) tidy                2) ripple                      3) straighten               4) compose                 5) align

 

 

 


CLOZE TEST  - 6

 

Tibet——(1)——— up images of a mystic land. Snow-capped mountain peaks pierce the blue sky and fierce chilly winds sweep the rolling grasslands. Maroon-robed Buddhist monks pray in remote monasteries and———(2)——- horsemen pound the rugged earth. People in this high plateau perform punishing rituals like prostrating hundreds of miles in tattered clothes on pilgrimage. Spirits, spells and flying apparitions are part of the Tibetan world. In short, Tibet remains an exotica. Such images are largely the result of books by Western travellers and explorers in the last century, which helped in keeping the mystique alive. And when the Communist rulers took over Tibet in the 1950s and began ——-(3)————-Chinese language and culture on the people, Tibet’s own history started to ——-(4)——–in the background. Thus, the only books available in English to Tsering Wangmo Dhompa as a young girl growing up in India and Nepal as a refugee ——-(5)—————those written by Westerners, and so she came to view the country as a forbidden land, a place where fantasy and fable collaborated against a dramatic backdrop of mountains, black magic and people with strange customs and appearances.

 

1.

(a) makes                         (b) conjures                (c) puts                        (d) toil.
2.

(a) sturdy                          (b) wobbly                  (c) handsome              (d) herculean.
3.

(a) implementing            (b) evading                  (c) imposing                (d) experimenting.
4.

(a) amplify                       (b) stretch                    (c) die                          (d) recede.
5.

(a) are                               (b) have been              (c) was                        (d) were.

 

 

 

 

CLOZE TEST -7

 

There will also be more pollution-related illness. New cases of (1) in children aged 6-12 are forecast to soar to 36 million per year by 2060, from 12 million today. For adults, we predict ten million new cases per year by 2060, up from 3.5 million today. Children are also being increasingly affected by asthma. All of this will translate into more pollution-related hospital admissions, projected to rise to 11 million in 2060, from 3.6 million in 2010.

These health problems will be concentrated in densely populated areas with high PM concentrations, especially cities in China and India. In per capita terms, mortality is also set to reach high levels in Eastern Europe, the Caucasus region, and other parts of Asia, such as South Korea, where aging populations are highly (2) to air pollution.

The impact of air pollution is often discussed in dollar terms. By 2060, 3.75 billion working days per year could be lost due to the adverse health effects of dirty air – what economists call the “disutility of illness.” The direct market impact of this pollution in terms of lower worker productivity, higher health spending, and lower crop yields, could exceed 1% of GDP, or $2.6 trillion, annually by 2060.
Massive as they are, however, the dollar figures do not reflect the true costs of air pollution. Premature deaths from breathing in small (3) and toxic gases, and the pain and suffering from respiratory and cardiovascular diseases, do not have a market price. Nor does the experience of constantly inhaling foul-smelling air, or forcing your child to wear a face mask just to play outside. These burdens weigh far more (4) on people than any price tag can (5).

1.

1) flourishing              2) fresh           3) bronchitis               4) great                       5) hale

2.

1) domishing              2) secure         3) protected                4) vulnerable              5) guarded

3.

1) particles                  2) fine             3) elements                 4) evident                    5) frivolous

4.

1) clammily                2) heavily        3) gently                     4) lightly                     5) calmly

5.

1) presented                2) indicates     3) represent                 4) presence                 5) shows

 

 

 

CLOZE TEST - 8

Developing countries are facing major obstacles – many of which they have little to no control over – to achieving sustained high growth. Beyond the headwinds generated by slow advanced-economy growth and (1) post-crisis monetary and financial conditions, there are the disruptive impacts of digital technology, which are set to erode developing economies’ (2) advantage in labor-intensive manufacturing activities. With the reversal of these trends out of the question, (3) is the only option.
Robotics has already made significant inroads in electronics (4) , with sewing trades, traditionally many countries’ first entry point to the global trading system, likely to come next. As this trend continues, the (5) to build supply chains based on the location of relatively immobile and cost-effective labor will wane, with production moving closer to the final market. Adidas, for example, is already building a factory in Germany, where robots will produce high-end athletic shoes, and is planning a second one in the United States.

 

1.

1) standard               2) straight       3) abnormal           4) customary              5) normal

2.

1) distant                 2) divergent     3) weird                 4) comparative           5) variable

3.

1) decedent              2) amend        3) consistent           4) unsuitability          5) adaptation

4.

1) amendment     2) assembly    3) dispersal             4) stoic                       5) scattering

5.

1) inessential  2) voluntary    3) retained                  4) volatile                   5) imperative

 

 

 

CLOZE TEST - 9

Since the mandate of the CSBP and the expertise of its members are both severely limited, it is likely to come up with another set of ‘ad hoc’ solutions to serious challenges in managing our western border, unless it is willing to address and appreciate some of the (1) and long-standing issues.
It is surprising that there is hardly any bilateral treaty/legal basis to guide the management of the border between India and Pakistan. The India Pakistan Border Ground Rules, 1960-61, which is ‘supposed’ to form the basis of the management of the International Border (IB) between the two sides, has not been signed by the two governments. More so, India does not officially (2) the ground rules. The two sides last met in 2005 to frame new rules, but there has been no movement thereafter. Senior BSF officials in New Delhi say that they have been reminding the Home Ministry to finalise the same. More (3) , even though the two sides have not yet signed the ground rules, they have to (4) by it in Punjab, Rajasthan and Gujarat since there is practically nothing else to go by. That, strictly speaking, is an ad hoc(5) to manage a border that runs into thousands of kilometres.

 

1.

1) stopped            2) recurrent                 3) infrequent               4) permanent              5) prevented

2.

1) established      2) constituted              3) acknowledged        4) cognizant                5) recognize

3.

1) aberrant           2) anomalistic             3) curiously                4) anomalous              5) atypical

4.

1) shun                 2) abide                       3) despise                    4) resist                       5) quit

5.

1) arrangement    2) revocation              3) abrogation              4) annulment              5) retraction

 

 

 

CLOZE TEST  - 10

Festivities in France to celebrate Bastille Day were (1) cut short when a truck careened through a packed crowd in the French Riviera town of Nice. The driver, identified as a French national of Tunisian origin, was shot dead by the police, but not before he had killed 84 people, leaving bodies, including those of children,

(2) on the seaside walkway, the (3) des Anglais. President François Hollande quickly termed it a terror attack, extended the ongoing state of emergency for three months and called for intensifying air strikes in Syria and Iraq. The attack is the third major one in France in less than 18 months, following last November’s siege of Paris that 130 lives, and the January 2015 attack on the office of (4) magazine Charlie Hebdo that left 12 persons dead. Although social media channels of the Islamic State were flooded with messages acknowledging the Nice attack, no group had officially taken responsibility for it in its immediate (5) aftermath.

 

1.

1) brutally           2) acceptable              3) altruistic                 4) bounteous             5) humane

2.

1) toss                  2) scatter                     3) keep quiet             4) strewn                 5) sprinkle

3.

1) departure         2) doorway                  3) emanation            4) egress                 5) Promenade

4.

1) instigate          2) initiate                    3) induce                     4) claimed               5) inaugurate

5.

1) satirical      2) complimentary       3) approbatory            4) praising                    5) laudato

 

ANSWER KEY

 

CLOZE TEST 1

CLOZE TEST 2

CLOZE TEST 3

CLOZE TEST 4

CLOZE TEST 5

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CLOZE TEST 6

CLOZE TEST 7

CLOZE TEST 8

CLOZE TEST 9

CLOZE TEST 10

1

b

1

3

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a

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ERROR SPOTTING SET - 5 

ERROR SPOTTING SET - 5 

2725   08-Apr-2018, Sun

Direction for Ques ()Read each part of the sentence to find out if there is any error in it. The error if any will be in part of that sentence. The corresponding alphabet is the answer. If there is no error, mark e. (Check for Logical Consistency, Grammatical verb forms and vocabulary usage)

 

 

1. A) /The Nobel Laureates argue that the B)/ reason this innovation have not started C)/ saving lives yet is D)/ Greenpeace’s criminal opposition. E)/No error
 

2.A)/Japonica varieties are B) / easier to modify genetically, C)/ but does not perform D)/ well at Asian fields. E)/ No error
 

3. A)/Making a complaint in the prescribed B)/ mode for judicial misconduct C)/ is quite different from sending D)/ it viral on WhatsApp. E)/ No error
 

4. A)/Strikes and boycotts, demonstrations and gheraos B)/ in court campuses and court halls on C)/ all kind of issues were an endemic D)/ feature of the legal scene in Tamil Nadu.E)/ No error
 

5. A)/We can move to restoration B)/ of the relationship C)/ between the judiciary and D)/ the legal profession. E)/No error
 

6. A)/The study saw middle-income, healthy Chinese children consuming a total B)/ of 210 gram of pork and other foods C)/ over breakfast and lunch daily, with 40 per cent D)/ of their total calorie intake coming from fat. E)/No error
 

7. A)/The leaders of the striking B)/ associations demand that the Rules C)/ be withdrawn before they D)/ came to the discussion table. E)/No error
 

8. A)/Demands in the J&K legislature for revision B)/ or abrogation for the Indus treaty are C)/ growing since a resolution seeking D)/ a treaty review was passed in 2003. E)/No error
 

9. A)/we face the classical impasse of a pre-condition preventing B)/ the resolution of the problem, which will in C)/ all likelihood happen once the process D)/ of consultation and consideration begun. E)/No error
 

10. Over the last nine month Oli had been a / key proponent of this strategy, blaming / New Delhi for the five-month-long blockade / by agitating Madhesis in the Terai region. No error
1) Over the last nine month Oli had been a

2) key proponent of this strategy, blaming

3) New Delhi for the five-month-long blockade

4) by agitating Madhesis in the Terai region

5) No error

 

11. Public posturing makes of / exciting politics but managing / Parliament requires reasoned / negotiations and give-and-take. No error
1) Public posturing makes of

2) exciting politics but managing

3) Parliament requires reasoned

4) negotiations and give-and-take

5) No error

 

12.Rival parties in each state will / find it difficult to come / together nationally, or / to find ideological coherence. No error
1) Rival parties in each state will

2) find it difficult to come

3) together nationally, or

4) to find ideological coherence 5) No error

5) No error

13. No one party in this potential / grouping will have enough seats to / assume leadership, which will / has to be politically negotiated. No error
1) No one party in this potential

2) grouping will have enough seats to

3) assume leadership, which will

4) has to be politically negotiated

5) No error

 

14. The point of note is that medical / technology today can disclose much / more information about the / foetus after 20 weeks than earlier. No error
1) The point of note is that medical

2) technology today can disclose much

3) more information about the

4) foetus after 20 weeks than earlier

5) No error

 

15. Lowering the barricades against / experts from academia and the private / sector means more nimble, / bold and proactive solution. No error
1) Lowering the barricades against

2) experts from academia and the private

3) sector means more nimble

4) bold and proactive solution

5) No error

 

16. In the upcoming UP poll for / instance, BSP may have far more / credibility among all of / Congress’s traditional constituencies. No error
1) In the upcoming UP poll for

2) instance, BSP may have far more

3) credibility among all of

4) Congress’s traditional constituencies

5) No error

 

17. Perhaps the Modi government / can boast that babus have / become more punctual, but / this hardly suffices. No error
1) Perhaps the Modi government

2) can boast that babus have

3) become more punctual, but

4) this hardly suffices

5) No error

 

18. India’s tatty steel frame also need / lateral entry of non-state experts, / a scheme which has been / initiated but needs a big expansion. No error
1) India’s tatty steel frame also need

2) lateral entry of non-state experts

3) a scheme which has been

4) initiated but needs a big expansion

5) No error

 

19. New Delhi too should unconditionally / support Kathmandu and help remove / the perception that it’s meddling / in Nepal internal affairs. No error
1) New Delhi too should unconditionally

2) support Kathmandu and help remove

3) the perception that it’s meddling

4) in Nepal internal affairs

5) No error

 

20. As you leave the house every day and make / your way to school or college, you / may have noticed people living / over bridges and flyovers and pavements.
1) As you leave the house every day and make

2) your way to school or college, you

3) have noticed people living

4) over bridges and flyovers and pavements

5) No error

 

21. Most of them would have either sold their / last bits of land which they could not / continue to cultivate or lost what land they / had to moneylenders in villages.
1) Most of them would have either sold their

2) last bits of land which they could not

3) continue to cultivate or lost what land they

4) had to moneylenders in villages

5) No error

 

22. Freedom and independence do not mean / much to them as they face discrimination in / every stage in life starting from school / where they are made to feel inferior.
1) Freedom and independence do not mean

2) much to them as they face discrimination in

3) every stage in life starting from school

4) where they are made to feel inferior

5) No error

 

 

23. This August, the month of our Independence / that we remember with pride, let / us not forget the / injustice various communities are facing.
1) This August, the month of our Independence

2) that we remember with pride, let

3) us not forget the

4) injustice various communities are facing

5) No error

 

24. Cargo traffic at major ports, commercial vehicle / sales, cement output and steel consumption / are leading an upturn that point / for a more broad-based expansion.
1) Cargo traffic at major ports, commercial vehicle

2) sales, cement output and steel consumption

3) are leading an upturn that point

4) for a more broad-based expansion

5) No error

 

25. The RBI’s own surveys reveal healthier order / books and a picked -up in capacity / utilisation that can help / trigger a revival in private investment.
1) The RBI’s own surveys reveal healthier order

2) books and a picked -up in capacity

3) utilisation that can help

4) trigger a revival in private investment

5) No error

 

26. A lot will hinge on how the monsoon fares, / and how much the Centre is willing / to invest by way of capital / to bolster public sector banks.
1) A lot will hinge on how the monsoon fares

2) and how much the Centre is willing

3) to invest by way of capital

4) to bolster public sector banks

5) No error.

 

27. The World Health Organisation (WHO) estimates / that government accounts for only / one-thirds of India’s / healthcare spend well below what is desirable.
 

1) The World Health Organisation (WHO) estimates
2) that government accounts for only
3) one-thirds of India’s
4) healthcare spend well below what is desirable
5) No error

 

28. Given the low penetration of health / insurance, about 86 per cent of / expenditure on health come / out of people’s pockets.
 

1) Given the low penetration of health

2) insurance, about 86 per cent of

3) expenditure on health come

  1. out of people’s pockets.

5) No error

 

29. This strengthens the case for private / hospitals to dedicate a part / of their services to those / who cannot afford treatment.
 

1) This strengthens the case for private

2) hospitals to dedicate a part

3) of their services to those

  1. who cannot afford treatment.

5) No error

 

30. The emphasis on food sold by branded / restaurants, mainly local franchises / of western food brands, / again defies legitimate explanation.
 

1) The emphasis on food sold by branded

2) restaurants, mainly local franchises
3) of western food brands

4) again defies legitimate explanation

5) No error

 

31. To understand why, one needs to look on / international arbitrations and / World Trade Organisation (WTO) cases / involving tobacco control laws.
 

1) To understand why, one needs to look on

2) international arbitrations and
3) World Trade Organisation (WTO) cases

4) involving tobacco control laws
5) No error

 

32. Indonesia argued that U.S. law banned / the imports of clove cigarettes, / but it did not similarly banned / locally produced menthol cigarettes.
 

1) Indonesia argued that U.S. law banned

2) the imports of clove cigarettes
3) but it did not similarly banned

4) locally produced menthol cigarettes
5) No error

 

33. Uruguay had implemented a law which / placed major restrictions on how / tobacco companies could use / their trademarks on cigarette pack.
 

1) Uruguay had implemented a law which

2) placed major restrictions on how
3) tobacco companies could use

4) their trademarks on cigarette pack
5) No error

 

34. They view packing restrictions as a / major violation of their trademark / rights and are fiercely battling / governments in international courts.
 

1) They view packing restrictions as a

2) major violation of their trademark
3) rights and are fiercely battling

4) governments in international courts
5) No error

 

35. The law was adopted in good / faith and was reasonable / because it was tailored to / combat the risk of smoking.
 

1) The law was adopted in good

2) faith and was reasonable
3) because it was tailored to

4) combat the risk of smoking

5) No error

 

36. It is doubtful whether scientific literature would / support the proposition that western / processed food poses a health risk / while processed Indian food is not.
 

1) It is doubtful whether scientific literature would

2) support the proposition that western
3) processed food poses a health risk

4) while processed Indian food are not
5) No error

 

37. It was a step taken to move away from the / one-to-many narrative of the analogue media / and create a polyphony that represented the / layered reality of our complex world.
 

1) It was a step taken to move away from the

2) one-to-many narrative of the analogue media
3) and create a polyphony that represented the

4) layered reality of our complex world
5) No error

 

38. We question the use of anonymous / sources in journalism and / the problem it poses to good / reporting and informed public discourse.
 

1) We question the use of anonymous

2) sources in journalism and
3) the problem it poses to good

4) reporting and informed public discourse
5) No error

 

39. International tribunals are inclined / to defer to a government’s sovereign / right to regulate, particularly / at matters of public health.
 

1) International tribunals are inclined

2) to defer to a government’s sovereign
3) right to regulate, particularly

4) at matters of public health

5) No error

 

40.The OECD examined myriad economic / studies on air pollution to / quantify what people / health is worth to them.
 

1) The OECD examined myriad economic

2) studies on air pollution to
3) quantify what people

4) health is worth to them

5) No error

 

41. This progress reflect innovations that / enable broad-based consumption without / the construction and / maintenance of expensive brick-and-mortar outlets.
 

1) This progress reflect innovations that

2) enable broad-based consumption without
3) the construction and

4) maintenance of expensive brick-and-mortar outlets
5) No error

 

42. Growth in mobile sales has been driven by / lower-income consumers, particularly in / rural areas, where more than 81% / of Internet use occurs via mobile devices.
 

1) Growth in mobile sales has been driven by

2) lower-income consumers, particularly in
3) rural areas, where more than 81%

4) f Internet use occurs via mobile devices.
5) No error

 

43. The task for China’s leaders is to respond more / effectively to its citizens’ needs and / desires, including by accelerating / progress on economic reform.
 

1) The task for China’s leaders is to respond more

2) effectively to its citizens’ needs and
3) desires, including by accelerating

4) progress on economic reform
5) No error

 

44. As China’s e-commerce platforms become / increasingly global, they may erode / the dominance / of giant multinationals at international trade.
 

1) As China’s e-commerce platforms become

2) increasingly global, they may erode
3) the dominance

4) of giant multinationals at international trade
5) No error

 

45. All of this growth is great news for / China; indeed, at the time of slowing performance / in many traditional sectors, online / retailing could be an economic lifesaver.
 

1) All of this growth is great news for

2) China; indeed, at the time of slowing performance
3) in many traditional sectors, online

4) retailing could be an economic lifesaver
5) No error

 

46. China’s transformation in a consumer society / will have profound implications for / domestic and global suppliers and / distributors of goods and services.
 

1) China’s transformation in a consumer society

2) will have profound implications for
3) domestic and global suppliers and

4) distributors of goods and services
5) No error

 

47. They can choose not only what kinds of / goods and services they deem / worthwhile, but also where / to live and receive an education.
 

1) They can choose not only what kinds of

2) goods and services they deem
3) worthwhile, but also where

4) to live and receive an education
5) No error

 

48. Whatever challenge emerge, the fact / is that a prosperous China, underpinned by / local consumers, will contribute / to – and shape – a prosperous global economy.
 

1) Whatever challenge emerge, the fact

2) is that a prosperous China, underpinned by

3) local consumers, will contribute

4) to – and shape – a prosperous global economy.

5) No error

 

49. foreign importers may find that / Chinese-manufactured consumer / goods now cater more / to local taste and preferences.
 

1) foreign importers may find that

2) Chinese-manufactured consumer

3) goods now cater more

4) to local taste and preferences

5) No error

 

50. An expert group in 2011 estimated / urban infrastructure over a 20-years / period needed an / investment of Rs 39.2 trillion.
1) An expert group in 2011 estimated

2) urban infrastructure over a 20-years

3) period needed an

4) investment of Rs 39.2 trillion.

5) No error

 

51. Unless both Centre and states can find the political / will to carry out urban governance reforms, / talk to smart cities or / Swachh Bharat will remain just idle chatter.
 

1) Unless both Centre and states can find the political
2) will to carry out urban governance reforms
3) talk to smart cities or
4) Swachh Bharat will remain just idle chatter.
5) No error

 

52. Rebellion reared its head with the / August 26 removal of Chhotepur, who / is widely credited of building / the Punjab party from scratch.
 

1) Rebellion reared its head with the

2) August 26 removal of Chhotepur, who

3) is widely credited of building

  1. the Punjab party from scratch.

5) No error

 

53. The mayor would be the executive head of / a city, equipped with sufficient / legal powers and financial / resources to get things done.
 

1) The mayor would be the executive head of

2) a city, equipped with sufficient

3) legal powers and financial

4) resources to get things done

5) No error

 

54. It is time to narrow accountability to / a single office such as an / elected mayor, as successful / cities across the world do.
 

1) It is time to narrow accountability to

2) a single office such as an

3) elected mayor, as successful

  1. cities across the world do.

5) No error

 

55. It is shameful that about half the households in / India’s start-up capital Bengaluru does not / have a sewerage connection or around / the same proportion in Mumbai live in slums.
 

1) It is shameful that about half the households in

2) India’s start-up capital Bengaluru does not

3) have a sewerage connection or around

4) the same proportion in Mumbai live in slums.

5) No error

 

56. From public transport systems and traffic control / to managing solid waste disposal and / drainage, enormous investment / is needed to upgrade skills and resource.
 

1) From public transport systems and traffic control

2) to managing solid waste disposal and

3) drainage, enormous investment

4) is needed to upgrade skills and resource.

5) No error

 

57. The spirit underpinning the amendment / has been ignored by states even / as they ask for decentralisation / and more powers from the Centre.
 

1) The spirit underpinning the amendment

2) has been ignored by states even

3) as they ask for decentralization

  1. and more powers from the Centre.

5) No error

 

58. It is almost 25 years since the 74th / constitutional amendment mandated / setting on of municipalities as / institutions of self-government.
 

1) It is almost 25 years since the 74th

2) constitutional amendment mandated

3) setting on of municipalities as

  1. institutions of self-government.

5) No error

 

59. It is worth reminding populist / politicians that working cities / is in everybody’s / interest, including villagers.
 

1) It is worth reminding populist

2) politicians that working cities

3) is in everybody’s

  1. interest, including villagers.

5) No error

 

60. Baha’i teachings discourage any conflict or / dissension in the name of religion and / they believes that the purpose of / true religion should be to unite all hearts.
 

1) Baha’i teachings discourage any conflict or

2) dissension in the name of religion and

3) they believes that the purpose of

4) true religion should be to unite all hearts. ‘

5) No error

 

61. Most Indian employers don’t / know the work of Nobel / laureate Peter Diamond’s work on / search costs at labour markets.
 

1) Most Indian employers don’t

2) know the work of Nobel

3) laureate Peter Diamond’s work on

  1. search costs at labour markets.

5) No error

 

62. They are to important to ignore, but their / actual importance can take time / to understand or reveal itself, and this / doesn’t fit into the immediate needs of news.
 

1) They are to important to ignore, but their

2) actual importance can take time

3) to understand or reveal itself, and this

4) doesn’t fit into the immediate needs of news.

5) No error

 

63. Finding such a workforce has / become the corporate equivalent / of kissing 100 frog / to find one princess.
 

1) Finding such a workforce has

2) become the corporate equivalent

3) of kissing 100 frog

  1. to find one princess.

5) No error

 

64. The Indian government’s momentous / changes to the Union Budget / is being presented as / a mere matter of efficiency.
 

1) The Indian government’s momentous

2) changes to the Union Budget

3) is being presented as

  1. a mere matter of efficiency.

5) No error

65. Soft skills are increasingly / valuable, yet are hard to / teach and are almost always / learnt on the job.
 

1) Soft skills are increasingly

2) valuable, yet are hard to

3) teach and are almost always

  1. learnt on the job.

5) No error

 

66. This year, the bottom 20 / per cent of engineer will / get less salary than the / top 20 per cent ITI graduates.
 

1) This year, the bottom 20

2) per cent of engineer will

3) get less salary than the

4) top 20 per cent ITI graduates.

5) No error

67. Some make a point of not / wearing new shoes, or repairing / its old ones to show / how suitably thrifty they are.
 

1) Some make a point of not

2) wearing new shoes, or repairing

3) its old ones to show

4) how suitably thrifty they are.

5) No error

 

68. India’s new apprenticeship regime / breaks with a painful past / created by the rigid / Apprentices Act in 1961.
 

1) India’s new apprenticeship regime

2) breaks with a painful past

3) created by the rigid

  1. Apprentices Act in 1961.

5) No error

 

69. They suggest that equity markets that clear / on price are different from matching / markets like college applications / and recruitment that clear on information.
 

1) They suggest that equity markets that clear

2) on price are different from matching

3) markets like college applications

4) and recruitment that clear on information

5) No error

 

70. a)/The resolution expressed concerns over the b)/ detention of Hurriyat leaders c)/and human rights activists and urged d)/the Indian government to released them.e)/No error
 

71. a)/It is never helpful to point at sticking points, b)/ but it is always helpful to encourage c)/one’s partners to take a much active d)/ and forward-looking approach. e)/No error
 

72. a)/There is no doubt that the Modi government should make electoral b)/funding transparent, since the perception about it is c)/ that it is by and large corruption-free d)/and has a grip on governance. e)/No error
 

73. a)/Culling of stray dogs, sterilisation, b)/ and administration of the anti-rabies c)/vaccine have made hardly d)/any difference. e)/No error
 

74. a)/By making a sensitive issue, on which the dignity b)/and pride of the nation are at stake, c)/a political agenda, parties are showing d)/how unethical they have become. e)/No error
 

75. a)/The Singur verdict is one of the rarest cases b)/ where a judgment was in favour c)/ of the poor, there are a few of course who look at it as a d)/setback for the flagship programme “Make in India”. e)/No error
 

76. a)/The Bill is a step forward, but the problem b)/unfortunately lies in people attitude c)/and to bring about a change in attitude d)/ will take a longer time. e)/No error
 

77. a)/The current team is yet to b)/stage some of the magnificent, c)/quality cricket the contemporary d)/ greats played. e)/No error
 

78. a)/It’s good that the top court has reiterated b)/that it means business and is c)/ proceeding determinedly to cleanse the way through d)/which the game is being administrated. e)/No error
 

79. a)/At the risk of sounding cynical, one could b)/only say that stray dogs are here c)/to stay and will win every round in d)/ their battle against the human race. e)/No error
 

80. a)/A large congregation of butterflies b)/North Dark Blue Tiger, Common Crow and Double-banded c)/Crow will begin move swiftly d)/through the Western Ghats. e)/No error
 

81. a)/The host recovered b)/quick through a c)/defensive effort, paving the way d)/for the quick return of Anup. e)/No error
 

82. a)/Sovereign funds, pension funds and large public institution b)/ have been entering the real estate market c)/ through acquisitions anticipating relatively d)/better economic growth and therefore better returns. e)/No error
 

83. a)/My brother had a son b)/and a daughter and me and c)/ my wife yearned for d)/a complete family like his. e)/No error
 

84. a)/The Cambridge historian Quentin Skinner b)/suggested that before we judge words c)/spoken in the past, we must know what d)/ they signified then. e)/No error
 

85. a)/In the larger scheme of foreign policy, b)/the Obama administration also had to deal c)/by a rising, ambitious d)/China and a resurgent, vengeful Russia. e)/No error
 

86. a)/we cannot gain the b)/trust of the corporate sector c)/ whose involvement is also d)/ essential in expanding India’s growth. e)/No error
 

87. a)/These citizens and groups have been b)/steadily achieving ‘Clean India’ goals without c)/any fanfare, and with hardly d)/any support from local bodies. e)/No error
 

88. a)/India also needs to fight b)/the war of inequality and injustice c)/ which is also proving to be a hurdle d)/ in the way of its become a big power. e)/No error
 

89. a)/There should be at least b)/one day in a week allotted to c)/ confiscating and penalising d)/the owners of these vehicles. e)/No error
 

90. a)/ Having deprived from their homes b)/ in the recent earthquake,
c)/they had no other option but d)/to take shelter in a school. e)/ No error

 

91. a)/ Due to certain inevitable circumstances b)/ the scheduled programme had to be c)/ postponed indefinite d)/but the members could not be informed. e)/ No error
 

92. a)/ some of the more best b)/ preserved pre-Columbian chiff c)/ dwelling in the United states d)/are located in Mesa Verde National Park in Colorado. e)/ No error
 

93. a)/In the view of intense cold wave conditions b)/ prevailing in the state, the government declared c)/ holidays in all the schools d)/ for the period of ten days. e)/ No error
 

94. a)/ Even though the exchange attract b)/ attention of all those present at c)/ the police station, the inspector continued d)/ his tirade against the girl. e)/ No error
 

95. a)/ The principal explained to the parents b)/ that no counselling would prove c)/to be useful unless the students d)/ do not have motivation from inside. e)/ No error
 

96. a)/ Not only was the actress over the moon b)/ on winning an award, but was c)/ also deeply touched by the support d)/ she got from the industry . e)/ No error
 

97. a)/ Celebrating its ten long years b)/ in the industry, a private entertainment channel c)/ announce a series of d)/ programmes at a press conference. e)/ No error
 

98. a)/ If the bystander had not been b)/ familiar with first-aid techniques, c)/ the driver which had met d)/ with the accident would have died. e)/ No error
 

99. a)/The incentive seems to b)/ having been worked well c)/ because the no of employees going on leave d)/ has reduced significantly. e)/ No error
 

100. a)/Denmark introduced a surcharge few b)/ years ago on foods that contain over c)/ 2.3 per cent saturated fat, drawing d)/criticism about excessive bureaucracy. e) No error

ANSWER KEY
 

1

B

Replace “have” with “has”
Innovation is singular hence verb will be singular.

2

D

Replace “at” with “in”

3

B

Replace “for” with “about”
FOR – Used to indicate the use of something and Used to indicate time or duration. ABOUT

4

C

Replace “kind” with “kinds” for all.

5

E

No Error

6

B

Replace “gram” with “grams”

7

D

Replace “came” with “come”

8

B

Replace “for” with “of”

9

D

Replace “begun” with “begins”

10

1

Replace “month” with “months”

11

1

Replace “of” with “for”

12

5

No Error

13

4

Replace “has” with “have”

14

5

No Error

15

4

it should be solutions instead of solution.

16

1

Replace “poll” with “polls”

17

5

No Error

18

1

Replace “need” with “needs”

19

4

it should be Nepal’s instead of Nepal.

20

4

Replace “over” with “under”

21

5

No Error

22

2

Replace ”in” with ”at”

23

2

Replace “that” with “which”

24

4

Replace “for” with “to”

25

2

Replace “picked” with “pick”
given sentence is form present tense hence second form of verb is not appropriate.

26

5

No Error

27

3

Replace “thirds” with “third”

28

3

Replace “come” with “comes”

29

5

No Error

30

5

No Error

31

1

it should be “look at” instead of “look On”

32

3

it should be “ban” instead of “banned”
Did + V1st form.

33

4

Replace “pack” with “packs”
Use packs for plural

34

5

No Error

35

4

Replace “combat” with “combating”
Was/were + ing.

36

4

Replace “are not” with “does not”

37

2

it should be “narratives” instead of “narrative“
one-to-many + plural

38

5

No Error

39

4

Replace “at” with “in”

40

3

it should be “people’s” instead of “people”
Use the apostrophe to show possession.

41

1

Replace “reflect” with “reflects”
Add “s” on the end of a verb in present tense to agree with the singular “he,” “she,” or “it” etc. subjects.

42

5

No Error

43

2

Replace “its” with “their”
use “their” for citizens

44

4

Replace “at” with “in”
at international will be appropriate.

45

2

it should be at a time instead of at the time

46

1

Replace in with into.
preposition into is to indicate movement toward the inside of a place.

47

5

No Error

48

1

it should be challenges instead of challenge

49

4

Replace “taste” with “tastes”

50

2

Replace “years” with “year”
it should be 20 – year.

51

3

Replace “to” with “about”

talk about cities will be appropriate.

52

3

Replace “of” with “for”

53

1

Replace “would” with “should”

54

5

No Error

55

2

Replace “does” with “do”

56

4

Replace “resource” with “resources”

57

5

No Error

58

3

Replace “setting on” with “setting up”
Setting up is correct phrase.

59

3

Replace “is” with “are”

60

3

Replace “believes” with “believe”
Singular + s,es

61

4

Replace “at” with “in”

62

1

it should be too instead of to

63

3

it should be frogs instead of frog
100 frogs will be correct.

64

3

Replace “is” with “are”

65

5

No Error

66

2

it should be engineers 20 percent engineers will be correct.

67

3

Replace “its” with “their”

68

5

No Error

69

5

No Error

70

D

it should be “release” instead of “released”.

71

C

it should be “more” instead of “much”

72

E

No Error

73

C

it should be “hardly made” instead of “made hardly”

74

A

it should be “in which” instead of “on which”

75

B

it should be “has been” instead of “was”

76

B

replace “people attitude” by “people’s attitude”

77

E

No Error

78

C

it should be “way in” instead of “way through”

79

A

replace “could” by “can”

80

C

it should be “Crow will begin to move swiftly”

81

B

its should be “quickly” instead of “quick” because we are using quick in the adjective form. Adjective form of quick is quickly

82

A

it should be “large public institutions” instead of “large public institution”

83

A

it should be “daughter and I” instead of “daughter and me”

84

B

it should be “suggests that before we judge words” rather of “suggested that before we judge words”

85

C

it will be “with a rising, ambitious” rather than “by a rising, ambitious”

86

E

No Error

87

D

it will be “any support from local bodies” rather than “any support for local bodies”.

88

D

it will be “in the way of its becoming a big power” rather than “in the way of its become a big power”.

89

E

No Error

90

A

It should been “having been deprived” instead of “having deprived” because of its passive form.

91

C

it should be “indefinitely” rather than “indefinite”.

92

A

it should be “some of the best”.

93

C

it should be “holiday” instead of “holidays”.

94

A

instead of “attract” it will be “attracted”.

95

D

it will be “have motivation from inside” instead of “do not have motivation from inside”.

96

E

No Error

97

C

it should be “announced” instead of “announce”.

98

C

instead of “which” it should be “who”.

99

B

instead of “having been” it will be “have”, because work is intransitive verb.

100

A

replace “few” with “a few”
Few – when the amount is small and unsatisfactory
A Few – when the amount is small but still satisfactory


 

 

 

ERROR SPOTTING SET - 4

ERROR SPOTTING SET - 4

2648   08-Apr-2018, Sun

Direction for Qns (251 to 500 )Read each part of the sentence to find out if there is any error in it. The error if any will be in part of that sentence. The corresponding alphabet is the answer. If there is no error, mark e. (Check for Logical Consistency, Grammatical verb forms and vocabulary usage)

 

1. a)/ When we talk about our demographic advantage, b)/ the young people in this country c)/ find the education d)/ system not fully aligned with the market. e)/ No error
 

2. a)/ Families often provide lifelong care to elders, b)/ but for those who can’t or don’t c)/ want to depend on its children’s d)/ solicitude, it’s a harsh world. e)/ No error
 

3. a)/ Economic, education and environment b)/ crises can’t make our quarrelsome c)/ Parliament work but thanks d)/ with the goat, hope floats? e)/ No error
 

4. a)/ Apparently this is because of falling b)/ oil prices, except not long ago they were c)/ crying doom on the street d)/ because for rising oil prices. e)/ No error
 

5. a)/ Common folks are complaining about cops wasting b)/ scarce resources but activist folks c)/ are saying it’s time of d)/ a Right to Food Bill for goats. e)/ No error
 

6. a)/ When the court likened Delhi to a gas chamber, b)/ his team decided to treat this problem with c)/ an odd-even injection even though private d)/ cars cause less than 5% of the pollution. e)/ No error
 

7. a)/ The sky is falling on Dalal Street, a meteorite has b)/ fallen on K Pantharappalli village, a goat c)/ has been arrested in Chhattisgarh and the d)/ national capital’s back to flirting with an car ban. e)/ No error
 

8. a)/ With its allies unhappy at what they see as lack b)/ of access and information, BJP have been c)/ forced to react by activating an d)/ alliance coordination mechanism for NDA. e)/ No error
 

9. a)/ The Abu Dhabi Investment Authority’s keenness b)/ to invest $5 billion on taking up 50 Indian c)/ highway projects on a toll- operate-transfer d)/ basis highlights the possibilities. e)/ No error
 

10. a)/ Whatever you do in life, if that’s b)/ disengaged, it’s a perilous c)/ journey not just for them d)/ individually but for the nation. e)/ No error
 

11. a)/ A look on the globe suggests b)/ that low income countries c)/ bear a disproportionate share of d)/ fatalities from road accidents. e)/ No error
 

12. a)/ Enforcement needs b)/ to be complemented by other c)/ institutional changes, including better designed road d)/ features that made safety the primary objective. e)/ No error
 

13. a)/These should be made mandatory b)/ as soon as possible, c)/ so that Indian auto safety standards d)/ are in line with international norm. e)/ No error
 

14. a)/ The company, that b)/ has already purchased land c)/ in Hyderabad and Mumbai to start d)/ retail operations in India. e)/ No error
 

15. a)/You cannot distribute b)/ these inexpensive products c)/ long distances because if you does that then you d)/ would ruin the margin of the product . e)/ No error
 

16. a) / When we look at lowering prices, b)/ our prime area of focus have been c)/ how we lower cost of operations for d)/ sellers so that they can offer lower prices. e)/ No error
 

17. a)/ In general our approach b)/ has been to focus on things c)/ that matter to customers and d)/ don’t change with time. e)/ No error
 

18. a)/ Our deep paranoia that a b)/ customer does find the best c)/ shopping experience elsewhere is core with d)/ how we approach our daily jobs. e)/ No error
 

19. a)/ When people choose to defend something, b)/ then I think they should be held c)/ accountable for it,” said Daniel Stedman, a founder of the d)/ North side Media Group, which runs the Brooklyn festival. e)/ No error
 

20. a)/ Hillary Clinton is the first woman to b)/ become the presumptive nominee c)/ of a major party in America, and for some, d)/ it was a inspiring and euphoric moment. e)/ No error
 

21. a)/ Kerala chief minister Pinarayi Vijayan b)/ unleashed a storm with his c)/ post against environmental d)/ fundamentalism at Facebook. e)/ No error
 

22. a)/The comments come in the b)/ backdrop of opposition to efforts c)/ to revive the 20-year-old proposal for the d)/ 163 MW Athirapally hydroelectric project. e)/ No error
 

23. a)/ This is wrong to label b)/ questioning of development c)/ projects as “ecological d)/ fundamentalism”. e)/ No error
 

24. a)/ Across the political spectrum, politicians b)/ support conserving the environment c)/ without stunting development are posit the environment are d)/ development as two sides for the same coin. e)/ No error
 

25. a)/ Globally, economic development over the b)/ last 30 years has lifted millions out of poverty but c)/ also caused environmental and societal harm those d)/ threatens to reverse or undermine development. e)/ No error
 

26. a)/ There are indications that the b)/ Pakistani Establishment too c)/ was anxious to see how far it d)/ would push the envelope. e)/ No error
 

27. a)/ Let us not forget that this b)/ is the very first time that the c)/ appointment or the extension of a central bank d)/ governor have given rise to such much controversy. e)/ No error
 

28. a)/ This is a technical area; b)/ very few people actually understand c)/ the intricacies of monetary d)/ policy or banking supervision. e)/ No error
 

29. a)/ Arundhati Bhattacharya has b)/ moved up five spots from the c)/ previous year to 5th this year, d)/ SBI said in an statement. e)/ No error
 

30. a)/ with inequality a rising concern and b)/ cause for political turmoil in Western c)/ countries, Ambedkar’s appeal d)/ has reaches Western shores as well. e)/ No error
 

31. The overwhelming focus on quantity of health care in India / has long ignored a massive problem with the quality / of health care which is delivered both through / public as well as private institutions. No Error
1) The overwhelming focus on quantity of health care in India
2) has long ignored a massive problem with the quality
3) of health care which is delivered both through
4) public as well as private institutions
5) No Error

 

32. There is no justice, as the police are hesitant to act against / the criminals of a particular religion and complaints are not / registered if the victim belongs to another religion / They are asked to settle it among themselves. No Error
1) There is no justice, as the police are hesitant to act against
2) the criminals of a particular religion and complaints are not
3) registered if the victim belongs to another religion
4) They are asked to settle it among themselves
5) No Error

 

33. A high-power committee has recommended changes to laws governing infrastructure development along India’s coast, / with the most significant being giving greater powers and responsibilities to coastal States to regulate / development, maintain and conserve ecologically fragile zones and ensure that the environment be protected without / neglecting “basic requirements of growing population.” No Error
1) A high-power committee has recommended changes to laws governing infrastructure development along India’s coast
2) with the most significant being giving greater powers and responsibilities to coastal States to regulate
3) development, maintain and conserve ecologically fragile zones and ensure that the environment be protected without
4) neglecting “basic requirements of growing population.”
5) No Error

 

34. The Pacific Ring of Fire is a horseshoe / shaped area around the Pacific Ocean / that contains subduction / zones and deep trenches. No Error
1) The Pacific Ring of Fire is a horseshoe 2) shaped area around the Pacific Ocean
3) that contains subduction 4) zones and deep trenches 5) No Error

 

35. As the tsunami waves approach the shore /, the water depth become shallower, waves slow down, / wavelength becomes shorter and the waves gain larger amplitude / or heights and become destructive. No Error
1) As the tsunami waves approach the shore
2) the water depth become shallower, waves slow down,
3) wavelength becomes shorter and the waves gain larger amplitude
4) or heights and become destructive
5) No Error

 

36. As a multipurpose element, borax finds itself as a / crucial nutrient for plants, a vital component in the nuclear / industry and should also find its way to the tech world / through boron buckyballs discovered only in 2014. No Error
1) As a multipurpose element, borax finds itself as a
2) crucial nutrient for plants, a vital component in the nuclear
3) industry and should also find its way to the tech world
4) through boron buckyballs discovered only in 2014
5) No Error

 

37. The need of the hour is to establish a new section, in one of the prominent / pages, like the Op-Ed page or the National page, called Fact Check, / where rhetoric from political leadership is scrutinized / closely so that people can sort the wheat from a chaff. No error
1) The need of the hour is to establish a new section, in one of the prominent
2) pages, like the Op-Ed page or the National page, called Fact Check
3) where rhetoric from political leadership is scrutinized
4) so that people can sort the wheat from a chaff
5) No Error

 

38. Measuring quality has to move from away from a simple / “public versus private” debate and a blame-game / mentality so as to be an inclusive strategy that / takes into account many of these themes. No error
1) Measuring quality has to move from away from a simple
2) “public versus private” debate and a blame-game
3) mentality so as to be an inclusive strategy that
4) takes into account many of these themes
5) No Error

 

39. ”Wat Pha Luang Ta Bua” temple promoted itself as a place where / people and tigers could coexist in harmony, but many reports / point out that the tigers were ill-treated to assure docility and to / cooperate for photographs with the tourists. No error
1) ”Wat Pha Luang Ta Bua” temple promoted itself as a place where
2) people and tigers could coexist in harmony, but many reports
3) point out that the tigers were ill-treated to assure docility and to
4) cooperate for photographs with the tourists
5) No Error

 

40. One would not require any more evidences to came to terms with / the fact that global warming and climate / change are happening right now; right here / and that they are not things of the future. No error
1) One would not require any more evidences to came to terms with
2) the fact that global warming and climate
3) change are happening right now; right here
4) and that they are not things of the future
5) No Error

 

41. Despite the overwhelming support she won / among the Conservative MPs, Ms. May /will need to reinvent her image for the / sake of the party rank and file. No error
1) Despite the overwhelming support she won

2) among the Conservative MPs, Ms. May

3) will need to reinvent her image for the

4) sake of the party rank and file

5) No error

 

42. Under Article 50 of the Treaty of European / Union, talks could likely last two / years, with the possibility for extension if all of / the remaining 27 EU nations agree. No error
1) Under Article 50 of the Treaty of European

2) Union, talks could likely last two

3) years, with the possibility for extension if all of

4) the remaining 27 EU nations agree

5) No error

 

43. Prime Minister Narendra Modi / is signing a pact with Mozambique / for double pulses imports / from that country. No error
1) Prime Minister Narendra Modi

2) is signing a pact with Mozambique

3) for double pulses imports

4) from that country

5) No error

 

44. Germany’s Finance Minister Wolfgang Schaeuble / recently said that “it would be a / miracle if a withdrawal of Britain would / come without economic disadvantage. No error
1) Germany’s Finance Minister Wolfgang Schaeuble

2) recently said that “it would be a

3) miracle if a withdrawal of Britain would

4) come without economic disadvantage

5) No error

 

45. If there is a vote for Brexit / than on Friday the PM will / indicate how the process / of Brexit will begin. No error
1) If there is a vote for Brexit

2) than on Friday the PM will

3) indicate how the process

4) of Brexit will begin

5) No error

 

46. The result will triggers a new series of / negotiations as Britain and the EU search for a / way to separate economies that have become / intertwined since the U.K. joined the bloc on Jan. No error
1) The result will triggers a new series of
2) negotiations as Britain and the EU search for a
3) way to separate economies that have become
4) intertwined since the U.K. joined the bloc on Jan
5) No error

 

47. Since joining the club in 1973, Britain has shaped / the bloc mainly by putting the brakes / on the drive toward ever-closer political union, / a project that could now be revived with gusto. No error
1) Since joining the club in 1973, Britain has shaped
2) the bloc mainly by putting the brakes
3) on the drive toward ever-closer political union
4) a project that could now be revived with gusto
5) No error

 

48. EU leaders will see Britain quitting / as a dangerous precedent and a / potentially fatal blow / to European project. No error
1) EU leaders will see Britain quitting

2) as a dangerous precedent and a

3) potentially fatal blow

4) to European project

5) No error

 

49. Economic Affairs Secretary Shaktikanta Das said on Thursday / that the government move to raise the minimum support price for pulses / is expected to help push up their output / and thereby contain food inflation. No error
1) Economic Affairs Secretary Shaktikanta Das said on Thursday
2) that the government move to raise the minimum support price for pulses
3) is expected to help push up their output
4) and thereby contain food inflation
5) No error

 

50. a)/ In North America, the popular legend b)/ is to look at the behavior of groundhog c)/ to determine whether d)/it is early spring or an extended winter. e)/ No error
 

51. a)/The court dismissed the government argument b)/that every armed person breaking prohibitory c)/ orders in a disturbed area runs d)/the risk of being considered an “enemy.” e)/ No error
 

52. a)/The Finance Minister has announced b)/ Rs.12,000-crore package to fight c)/economic slowdown by d)/taking up major infrastructure projects. e)/ No error
 

53. a)/Denmark introduced a surcharge few b)/ years ago on foods that contain over c)/ 2.3 per cent saturated fat, drawing d)/criticism about excessive bureaucracy. e) No error
 

54. a)/The Southern Railway made the submission b)/ in response to a PIL moved in 2013 seeking a c)/direction to authorities to take steps d)/ to control travel with footboard in trains, especially by students. e) No error
 

55. a)/In view of completion of the Pattiseema b)/ project in record time, one increment would c)/ be given to all engineer d) who worked for the project.e) No error
 

56. a)/ A project that daringly set out to bring b)/to life iconic paintings — many created in just one c)/day — have proved to be a staggeringly laborious d)/ cinematic effort taking years to realize.e) No error
 

57. a)/Australian scientists have developed b)/ a new anti-venom treatment that couldc)/save household pets from d)/ deadly snakebites.e) No error
 

58. a)/A global conservation group says Borneo’s orangutans b)/are now a critically endangered species c)/ due to hunting and d)/destruction of forest habitat.e) No error
 

59. a)/Researchers have discovered that an deadly bacteria, b)/ which can be picked up by a simple sniff,c)/ can travel to the brain and d)/ spinal cord in just 24 hours.e) No error
 

60. a)/India has sought Iran’s help in tracing b)/ 17 persons from Kerala, who have been c)/missing for over an month, and are suspected d)/ to have joined the Islamic State. e)/ No error
 

61. a)/Acting Governor of Arunachal Pradesh Tathagata Roy b)/ has asked Chief Minister Nabam Tuki for prove c)/ his majority on the floor of the d)/ Assembly by July 16.e)/ No error
 

62. a)/Chief Minister K. Chandrasekhar Rao will leave for b)/ New Delhi on Friday evening to attend the c)/ Inter-State Council meeting convened by d)/ Prime Minister Narendra Modi the previous day.e)/ No error
 

63. a)/A newly discovered meat-eating dinosaur that b)/ prowled Argentina 90 million years ago c)/ would have had a hard time using d)/ strong-arm tactics against its prey.e)/ No error
 

64. a)/After an agonizing wait for seven years, b)/ parents of the 28-year-old IT professional c)/ Jigisha Ghosh has d)/made tryst with justice.e)/ No error
 

65. a)/Ahead of next year’s Assembly polls in b)/Uttar Pradesh, the Congress on Thursday c)/named Sheila Dikshit as its d)/ chief minister candidate.e)/ No error
 

66. a)/The Vigilance and Anti-Corruption Bureau on Thursday name b)/Vellappally Natesan, general secretary c)/ of the SNDP Yogam, as the prime suspect in d)/ a multi-crore public fund embezzlement case.e)/ No error
 

67. a)/The two aircraft of the Indian Air Force ferrying stranded Indian citizens b)/from war-torn South Sudan was expected to c)/ arrive at the Thiruvananthapuram d)/ international airport in the early hours of Friday.e)/ No error
 

68. a)/The Centre announced an extension of a deadline b)/under the Income Declaration Scheme, c)/ aimed at bringing undeclared income and d)/ assets into the tax net to, September 30, 2017.e)/ No error
 

69. a)/In the biography titled “Who moved my interest rate?” b)/ Mr. Subbarao write about his five years c)/at the country’s central bank, d)/between 2008 and 2013.e)/ No error
 

70. a)/The General with over 1000 officers and b)/soldiers have surrendered to c)/the Indian troops who are d)/ patrolling the valley. e)/ No error
 

71. a)/A vehicle thief which was inspired by b)/ notorious criminal Bunty Chor c)/ has been arrested for stealing d)/luxury cars from posh localities in Delhi. e)/ No error
 

72. a)/A speeding tipper crushed to death UKG b)/student Sirisha while she was crossing the c)/ road in Hayathnagar police station d)/area on city outskirts on Thursday. e)/ No error
 

73. a)/Violent protests by Dalits continued in Gujarat on Wednesday b)/ with incidents of bus burning, c)/ clashes and highway blockades being d)/reported by Saurashtra and north Gujarat. e)/ No error
 

74. a)/Travel agents around the world have come to rely b)/on computers to book seats c)/in air flights or rooms in hotels, d)/either today or a year from now. e)/No error

 

75. a)/In Ahmedabad district, two instances of group clashes b)/were reported and the police c)/ has to use tear gas shells to disperse the mobs, d)/ which had blocked the highway. e)/ No error
 

76. a)/Astronomers have found two exoplanet that b)/ are potentially habitable,c)/as they do not have hydrogen-dominated d)/ atmospheres that smother life. e)/ No error

 

77. a)/The brain looks like a featureless b)/ expanse of folds and bulges, c)/but it’s actually carved up d)/ into invisible territories. e)/ No error
 

78. a)/Actor Sigourney Weaver has been named b)/ the 2016 recipient for the Jane Alexander c)/ Global Wildlife Ambassador Award d)/by the Indianapolis Zoo. e) No error
 

79. a)/Rather than being known for b)/ their sagacity, the politicians have c)/become butt off a joke for d)/their irresponsible comments. e)/ No error
 

80. a)/In the course of the three-hours interaction, b)/an issue that emerged clearly was the gap between c)/ the people’s aspirations and the speed in d)/which institutional arrangements move in India. e)/ No error
 

81. a)/For greater and better participation of ULBs and b)/ PRIs in Central schemes, the State may c)/ look to enhance their powers and d)/responsibilities through a single legislation. e) No error
 

82. a)/ The Ad Hoc Working Group on the Paris Agreement (APA) b)/is the body now responsible for c)/developing mechanisms and detailed steps for d)/ the implementation of the Paris deal. e)/ no error
 

83. a)/The high percentage of voluntary donations b)/ recorded in NACO-supported blood banks c)/ is partly because it included family donors d)/above the ambit of voluntary donation. e) No error
 

84. a)/One of the readers felt that the present one and b)/ a half pages of business is national in c)/ its focus and do not provide adequate attention to d)/the particular developments within the State. e) No error
 

85. a)/ Nine years have passed since the b)/ Sundar Committee on Road Safety c)/ and Traffic Management recommended the creation d)/ of a safety board through legislation. No error
 

86. a)/ Road accidents in India kill more peoples than b)/ some epidemics, but the Central c)/ and the State governments refuse to d)/ see it for what it is — a national crisis. e)/ No error
 

87. a)/ Strong policy reduces the risk for vulnerable b)/ road users such as pedestrians and c)/ two-wheeler riders, who d)/ must be compelled to wear helmets. e)/ No error
 

88. a)/ Instead of fast-paced motorisation, b)/ India does not have c)/ a scientific accident d)/ investigation agency. e)/ No error
 

89. a)/ The elevation of 36-year-old Pema Khandu to the top b)/ job exemplifies that political leaderships cannot c)/ take decisions sitting in New Delhi without d)/ incorporating the mood among elected representatives. e)/ No error
 

90. A)The legal community in Tamil Nadu has been at turmoil B) since June this year after the Madras High Court released its C) amendments to the Rules under the Advocates Act, D) providing for debarment of lawyers who have committed specified misconducts. E) No error.
 

91. Other than the High Court, lawyers in most other B) courts have been on boycott for the last two months, C) Recently the agitation has escalated, its latest manifestation being D) a unprecedented and unfortunate siege of the High Court. E) No error
 

92. While the judiciary and the legal profession are B) the prominent players in the episode, this litigant public C) suffer silently, unable to get bail, urgent interim D) orders, or resolution of long-pending cases. E) No error
 

93. A)/ However, it does appear that the Rules B)/ have gone to far, and do not carefully draw the line C)/ between unwelcome C)/ and impermissible conduct.E)/ No error
 

94. A)/ Making a complaint in the B)/ prescribed mode about judicial misconduct C)/ is quite different from D)/ sending it viral on WhatsApp. E)/ No error
 

95. The Rules have therefore caused B)/ apprehension and grave concern especially C)/ in the minds of younger D)/ lawyers and practitioners in a lower courts. E)/ No error
 

96 A)/ It has nominated a larger B) committee for this purpose C)/ It has sought to reassure lawyers about holding the D)/ Rules on abeyance in the meanwhile. E)/ No error
 

97. A)/ There is also assurance that this time the consultation will B)/ not be limited to the Bar Associations of the C)/ High Court, but would be more broad-based to D)/ encompass State- and district-wide bodies. E)/ No error
 

98. A)/ These assurances have not brought about B)/ the desired end of the agitation, C)/ The leaders of the striking associations demand that D)/ the Rules be withdrawn before they come to the discussion table. E)/ No error
 

99. A)/ So we face the classical impasse of a pre-condition B)/ preventing the resolution for the problem, C)/ which will in all likelihood happen once the D)/ process of consultation and consideration begins. E)/ No error

 

100. According to the National Green Tribunal’s recent / ruling such a transformation takes place when / the vehicle in question reaches 10 years / of age and plies in the National Capital Region. No error

 

ANSWER KEY

 

 

1.

D

Replace “with’ with “to”

2.

C

Replace “its” with “their”

3.

D

Replace “with” with “to”

4.

D

Replace “for” with “of”

5.

C

Replace “of” with “for”

6.

E

No error

7.

D

Replace “a” with “an”

8.

B

it should be “has been”.

9.

B

Replace “on” with “in”

10.

A

Replace “that’s” with “it’s”

11.

A

Replace “on” with “at”

12.

D

Replace “made” with “make”

13.

D

Replace “norm” with “norms”

14.

A

Replace “that” with “which”

15.

C

Replace “does” with “do”

16.

B

Replace “have” with “has”

17.

E

No error

18.

C

Replace “with” with “to”

19.

E

No error

20.

D

Replace “a” with “an”

21.

D

Replace “at” with “on”

22.

E

No error

23.

A

Replace “this” with “it”

24.

B

Replace “for” with “of”

25.

C

Replace “those” with “that”

26.

D

Replace “would” with “could”

27.

D

Replace “have” with “has”

28.

E

No error

29.

D

Replace “an” with “a”

30.

D

Replace “rechases” with “reached”
has/have + V3

31.

1

replace “which” with “that”

32.

3

replace “are” with “is”

33.

3

remove “the” before “environment”

34.

5

No error

35.

1

it should be “becomes” instead of “become”

36.

3

replace “should” with “could”

37.

4

replace “a” with “the”

38.

5

No error

39.

3

it should be “ensure” instead of “assure”

40.

1

replace “came” with “come”

41.

5

No error

42.

2

Replace “could” with “would”

43.

3

Replace “for” with “to”

44.

4

it should be disadvantages instead of disadvantage

45.

2

Replace “than” with “then”

46.

1

Replace “triggers” with “trigger”

47.

5

No error

48.

4

Add “the” before “European”

49.

2

it should be government’s

50.

3

it should be “groundhogs” instead of “groundhog”

51.

A

it should be “government’s” instead of “government”

52.

E

No Error

53.

A

replace “few” with “a few”
Few – when the amount is small and unsatisfactory
A Few – when the amount is small but still satisfactory

54.

D

replace “with” with “by”

55

C

it should be “engineers” instead of “engineer”

56.

C

it should be “has” instead of “have”
Here we are talking about one project. So it should be has.

57.

B

replace “could” with “can”

58.

E

No Error

59.

A

replace “an” with “a””.

60.

C

replace “an” with “a

61.

B

replace “for” with “to”

62.

D

it should be “the next day” instead of “the previous day”. Because first part of sentence is in future tense so meeting should be held on the next day.

63.

E

No Error

64.

C

replace “has” with “have”

65.

D

it should be “chief ministerial” instead of “chief minister”.

66.

A

it should be “named” instead of “name”

67.

B

replace “was” with “are”

68.

E

No Error

69.

B

it should be “writes” instead of “write”

70.

B

it should be “has” instead of “have”

71.

A

replace “which” with “who”

72.

E

No Error

73.

B

replace “by” with “from”

74.

C

it should be “on” instead of “in”

75.

C

replace “has” with “had”

76.

A

it should be “exoplanets” instead of “exoplanet”

77.

E

No Error

78.

B

it should be “recipient of” instead of “recipient for”

79.

C

replace “off” with “of”
Correct phrase is “butt of a joke – the reason for or aim of a joke, especially when it is a person”

80.

A

replace “three-hours” with “three-hour”.

81.

B

replace “may” with “must”.

82.

E

No Error

83.

D

replace “above” with “under”.

84.

C

replace “do” with “does”.

85.

E

No Error

86.

A

Replace “peoples” with “people”

87.

A

Replace “policy” with “policing”

88.

A

Replace “instead” with “in spite”

89.

E

No Error

90.

A

Replace “at” with “in”

91.

D

Replace “a” with “the”

92.

C

Replace “suffer” with “suffers”

93.

B

Replace “to” with “too”

94.

E

No Error

95.

D

Replace “a” with “the”

96.

C

Replace “on” with “in”

97.

C

Replace “will” with “would”

98.

E

No Error

99.

B

Replace “for” with “of”

100.

E

No Error

 

ERROR SPOTTING SET - 3

ERROR SPOTTING SET - 3

2582   08-Apr-2018, Sun

Direction for Ques (1 to 100) Read each part of the sentence to find out if there is any error in it. The error if any will be in part of that sentence. The corresponding alphabet is the answer. If there is no error, mark e.
(Check for Logical Consistency, Grammatical verb forms and vocabulary usage)

 

1). a)/ Wherever similar problems have been b)/ identified and partly solve elsewhere, c)/ we should unabashedly borrow solutions, d)/ giving credit where it is due. e)/ No error

 

2). a)/ Beyond these celebratory b)/ exhortations, we have already c)/ made incremental, but solid, d)/ progress in substantive policies. e)/ No error

 

3). a)/ If one looks at numerous survey b)/ on the web about the pet peeves c)/ of entrepreneurs, foremost d)/ among these are the tax burden. e)/ No error

 

4). a)/ We should think of “start-up” and “stand-up” b)/ as applying to the broadest swathes c)/ of our society, not just e-commerce and d)/ mobile apps, so important as these are. e)/ No error

 

5). a)/ The press and the public should b)/ hold us to account so c)/ that action survives much d)/ beyond today’s euphoria. e)/ No error

 

6). a)/ There is much that can be done to b)/ link the incubators on the input side c)/ to the university and laboratory ecosystem d)/ and on the output side to the corporates. e)/ No error

 

7). a)/ As a example, in the short b)/ run, I’d certainly like us c)/ to dramatically upgrade and expand d)/ our incubator ecosystem. e)/ No error

 

8). a)/ As several entrepreneurs said b)/ at the event, we should take c)/ it upon ourselves to imagine and d)/ implement solutions to our own problems. e)/ No error
 

9). a)/ In the interim five month, b)/ the aspiration, the reality and c)/ the stretch goal of this initiative d)/ have been coming into focus. e)/ No error

 

10). a)/ After the mid-year review suggested that fiscal b)/ targets may need to be revised, many economists c)/ emphasised the benefits of staying put on the d)/ announce path of fiscal consolidation. e)/ No error

 

11). a)/ The decision of the government b)/ to stick to the path of the c)/ announced fiscal targets is good d)/ not just in the long run. e)/ No error

 

12). a)/ With a slowdown in global demand, investment b)/ and domestic demand, a greater easing of the c)/ stance of monetary policy may be more possible d)/ today than perhaps even an year ago. e)/ No error

 

13). a)/ A loose fiscal policy would, therefore, b)/ have effectively meant that c)/ policymakers could be choosing d)/ the “loose fiscal, tight money” policy mix. e)/ No error

 

14). a)/ The fact that the policy rate was eased by b)/ only 125 basis point over the year, though inflation c)/ fell by about 500 basis points, can partly be explained d)/ by fears of rising inflationary pressures later. e)/ No error

 

15). a)/ The United States Federal Reserve were b)/ expected to raise interest rates in 2015, which c)/ could impact volatility in financial d)/ markets, especially currency markets. e)/ No error

 

16). a)/ While deciding the policy interest rate, b)/ monetary policymakers target the c)/ forecast of inflation and analyse the d)/ pressures of demand at core inflation. e)/ No error

 

17). a)/ A fiscal stimulus would increase b)/ the likelihood of demand c)/ rising and push up d)/ the inflation forecast. e)/ No error

 

18). a)/ The sharp decline in global commodity b)/ prices and the slowdown in demand c)/ in the domestic economy d)/ have reduced inflationary pressures. e)/ No error

 

19). a)/ One immediate gain of sticking b)/ to the path of consolidation will c)/ be to create space d)/ with monetary policy easing. e)/ No error

 

20). a)/ The results are rather b)/ disappointing given the perception c)/ that Indians have a natural d)/ affinity for all thing financial. e)/ No error

 

21). a)/ The number of speculative media b)/ report on what the government c)/ is likely to rollout or scrap in d)/ the Budget is also on the wane. e)/ No error
 

22). a)/ With opportunities opened up by the breakdown b)/ of Russia-Turkey trade relations, the finalising of c)/ market access for our agricultural d)/ and processed food products is important. e)/ No error

 

23). a)/ In my surveys, I find that b)/ in many parts of India, c)/ the Jan-Dhan Yojana d)/ is called the Modi Yojana. e)/ No error

 

24). a)/ The Prime Minister directly b)/ writing to commercial banks c)/ on the Jan-Dhan Yojana, it d)/ is clear whom is calling the shots.” e)/ No error

 

25). a)/ The perception that the Modi government b)/ has moved Westwards, especially c)/ towards the US, and had d)/ neglected Russia, is misplaced. e)/ No error
 

26). a)/ Russia has its own place in our foreign policy, b)/ underpinned by elements our other relationships, c)/ even as they grow strongest for d)/ pragmatic reasons, lack to the same degree. e)/ No error

 

27). a)/ President Pranab Mukherjee participated b)/ in the Moscow celebrations to c)/ mark the 70th anniversary of d)/ Russia’s victory in World War II. e)/ No error
 

28). a)/ India is keen that, as Russia proceeds b)/ to construct 12 nuclear reactors, c)/ there would be progressive d)/ transfer of technology. e)/ No error

 

29). a)/ Indian Oil and Oil India has signed b)/ a memorandum with Rosneft, which paves c)/ the way for the acquisition of 10 per cent stakes d)/ in the Taas-Yuriakh oil assets. e)/ No error

 

30). 1) We decided the if they /2) come up with a creditable /3) programme we would include /4) them in the scheme. /5) No error

 

31). 1) We have a fantastic car /2) this year, even better /3) that in 2014 and it /4) should suit the track /5) No error.

 

32). 1) It wasn’t the smoothest of /2) weekends for me so to come up /3) with second place wasn’t a /4) disaster in the circumstances /5) no error

 

33). 1) Aarata made history when /2) he become the first Japanese to /3) to represent India in a friendly /4) against Palestine in 2013. /5) No error.

 

34). India is turning to /2) be a key market for Sony /3) globally at a time when operations in many /4) other countries are struggling. /5) No error.

 

35). a Islamic message service, /2) started by Bareilly-based /3) tesheeni foundation in April this year, /4) Receives nearly 20 queries a day /5) No error.

 

36). The center’s argument that states /2) will get additional service tax /3) benefit is not convincing as there is /4) no clarity in it, said a senior official. /5) No error.

 

37). Curious Indians are prolific users of /2) the right to information (RTI) act and /3) public authority are /4) unable to keep them satisfied. /5) No error.

 

38). Any complaint regarding the /2) conduct of the examination were /3) attended within two hours /4) after the exam was over. /5) No error.

 

39). 1)India has decided do away with the practice of /2)put each imported food consignment through /3) lab checks and switch to the international norm of /4) random and risk based inspections. /5) No error

 

40). 1) SP Sumit singh , along with Devesh Panday and DSP Hasan, /2) headed separate terms that include cops from /3) six police stations and investigators from /4) the district police crime cell. /5) No error

 

41). 1) Many of us have learnt /2) not to make a public display /3) of our emotions, particularly when /4) that are negative. /5) No error

 

42). 1)Though Indians have been increasingly taking up /2) corner office in the international companies, /3) Rahul is the first Indian to lead /4) one of the top four accounting firms globally. /5) No error

 

43). 1) Democracy was Suspended not because it came /2) under existential threat but because it has /3) become an obstacle to political /4) ambitions trotted out as the nation’s solution. /5) No error

 

44). 1) A virtual takeover of a bankrupt civil society /2) by a coterie of individuals whom /3) cornered tremendous power by /4) being able to represent the state. /5) No error

 

45). 1) John Wanamaker, founder of the stores /2) that bear his name, once /3) confessed, I learnt 30 year ago /4) that it is foolish to scold. 5) No error

 

46). 1) Whether rich or poor, /2)American or Indian, /3) we all have the same emotions /4) deep with us. /5) No error

 

47). 1) This research indicate /2) that we can no longer /3) avoid significant warning /4) during this century. /5) No error

 

48). 1) Every modern society depends /2) on the trust in the skills and ethics of a variety /3) of institutions such as schools /4) and colleges, hospital and markets. /5) No error

 

49). Web designing must be responsive so (A)/ that visitors which area accessing the website (B)/ by making use of various operating (C)/ system will get clear view of your site. (D)/ No Error (E)

 

50). Today, numerous companies or organizations prefer (A)/ mobile applications and websites which are solely (B)/ designed among mobile devices or smart phones, (C)/ which reach their target audience directly. (D)/ No Error (E)

 

51). a)/ The second amendment came b)/ on 1993, at a time when c)/ there was a new-found d)/ enthusiasm for private colleges. e)/ No error
 

52). a)/ On grounds of corruption, the MCI faced b)/ the ignominy of being set aside by the Supreme c)/ Court in 2002 and again in 2010 d)/ with an ordinance issued by the government. e)/ No error

 

53). a)/ In the U.K. and in much European b)/ countries, medical education c)/ falls under the government, d)/ It is time for the same in India. e)/ No error

 

54). a)/ India has paid a huge price by b)/ sacrificing its traditional wisdom c)/ and not developing human d)/ resources suited to its needs. e)/ No error
 

55). a)/ The PSC has indicted the MCI b)/ and this alone is sufficient c)/ reason to set it aside d)/ with immediate effect. e)/ No error
 

56). a)/ The onus is now on the b)/ government to demonstrate c)/ its commitment to the d)/ bringing in ‘achche din’. e)/ No error
 

57). a)/ The government need to clearly state its policy on b)/ this issue to be consistent with the spirit and letter of the c)/ report that has strongly condemned d)/ the crass commercialisation of the health sector. e)/ No error
 

58). a)/ The Ministry of Health has b)/ recently sanctioned funds to c)/ 58 district hospital d)/ for such upgradation. e)/ No error
 

59). a)/ The PSC returned the b)/ Bill with any c)/ observations to the d)/ Ministry in October 2013. e)/ No error
 

60). a)/ Seizing the opportunity of the temporary suspension b)/ of the elected MCI, the Ministry of Health drafted a Bill to c)/ establish a National Commission to d)/ Human Resources for Health (NCHRH). e)/ No error

 

61). a)/ A week after a fire broke out b)/ in the Deonar dumping c)/ ground in Mumbai, fire in d)/ smaller pockets continue to blaze. e)/ No error

 

62). a)/ The oldest and larger dumping ground of b)/ India receives over 5,500 metric tonnes of waste, c)/ 600 metric tonnes of silt, and 25 d)/ tonnes of biomedical waste daily. e)/ No error
 

63). a)/ From slums to dumping grounds Since the early b)/ 1970s, this peripheral ward has evolved into a space for dumping c)/ garbage, waste from polluting industries, d)/ from abattoirs, and so on. e)/ No error
 

64). a)/ It is not only unwanted b)/ thing but “unwanted” people c)/ too who were and are d)/ dumped in this place. e)/ No error
 

65). a)/ Poor people living in inner city slums, b)/ and migrants displaced from other c)/ parts of the country was d)/ all forced by circumstances to settle here. e)/ No error

 

66). a)/ More people (largely Dalits and Muslims) relocated b)/ around the dumping ground, c)/ following acute droughts at rural Maharashtra d)/ and other parts of the country. e)/ No error

 

67). a)/ The Prime Minister’s special grant b)/ for urban renewal from 1986 to 1993 c)/ resulted in massive eviction of poor d)/ people from inner city areas to Deonar. e)/ No error
 

68). a)/ Over 90 per cent of pregnant b)/ women in 2014-15 were c)/ anaemic, and there is a high d)/ instance for maternal mortality. e)/ No error
 

69). a)/ They may put up rent a hut in the b)/ ward, but lose access to c)/ workplace, schooling, water d)/ and sanitation, and social capital. e)/ No error
 

70). a)/ To add to the challenges, factors b)/ such as caste, religion, region of c)/ origin, and occupation also d)/ affect the experience of poverty. e)/ No error
 

71). a )/ Nearly 17 months have b)/ passed for Prime Minister c)/ Narendra Modi launched the Swachh d)/ Bharat Abhiyan on October 2, 2014. e)/ No error
 

72). a)/ There is an urgent needs to b)/ build greater momentum around a c)/ broader understanding of d)/ what will make India truly Swachh. e)/ No error
 

73). a)/ we have to move forward, away from b)/ merely the provision of toilets to toilets c)/ that are used, maintained and where all d)/ human waste is safely treated and disposed. e)/ No error
 

74). a)/ While it may take week for b)/ the Syrian army to fully take control of c)/ Palmyra, it’s important to recognise the d)/ reasons for recent successes against IS. e)/ No error
 

75). a)/ That perhaps explains the extraordinary interest b)/ in alliance plans of DMDK and their c)/ leader Vijayakant, despite his d)/ unremarkable record as leader of opposition. e)/ No error
 

76). a)/ CPCB statistics are alarming b)/ but conversations around c)/ sanitation continue to d)/ happen in silos. e)/ No error
 

77). a)/ We need to bring to the forefront b)/ issues such as the undervaluing of operations and maintenance c)/ and sludge treatment project d)/ whilst simultaneously building toilets. e)/ No error
 

78). a)/ It is critical that we integrate the b)/ fragmented elements of the c)/ Indian sanitation space, both in d)/ terms of discussions and player. e)/ No error
 

79). a)/ At the India Sanitation b)/ Coalition, we have come c)/ through multiple players d)/ with varied strengths. e)/ No error
 

80). a)/ Despite allegations of corruption and a b)/ inept performance during floods in December, c)/ Jayalalithaa’s implementation of carefully chosen d)/ welfare schemes may offset the negatives. e)/ No error
 

81). a)/ Expectedly, tobacco companies are b)/ resisting a new regulation that c)/ the mandatory pictorial warnings in d)/ cigarette packages be made larger.e)/ No error
 

82). a)/ The high imposition of Central and State b)/ duties and taxes have prevented retail c)/ fuel prices from moving in lock-step d)/ with the international trend in oil.e)/ No error
 

83). a)/ Having lost the argument on the health effects b)/ for cigarette consumption, as well as passive smoking, d)/ cigarette-makers are pleading that d)/ tobacco-growers

 

84). a)/ This has helped shore up the government b)/ finances as it bets on public investment to c)/ spur the economy, even if this fiscal elbow d)/ room has been created at the consumer’s cost.e)/ No error
 

85). a)/ Australia has become something of b)/ a shining example for the rest of c)/ the world to follow in clamping d)/ down on suggestive branding.e)/ No error
 

86). a)/ While the desire to use the opportunity to address the b)/ fiscal deficit by shoring up revenue is tempting for any c)/ government, resorting to the use of any kind of indirect d)/ levers to impact fuel prices amount to a back door APM. e)/ No error
 

87). a)/ The government’s paternalistic argument b)/ that it is refusing to pass on the direct benefit c)/ of softer global oil prices as a service d)/ to consumers don’t not bear scrutiny.e)/ No error
 

88). a)/ The smoking habit is often picked up by suggestive b)/ nudges — through advertising, peer pressure, and c)/ cultural signals that associate smoking with d)/ hipness, attitude, stress-busting, and so on.e)/ No error
 

89). a)/ While price volatility is a key concern when b)/ international crude prices are climbed, the NDA c)/ government has reaped a revenue windfall d)/ from the dramatic drop in the price of oil.e)/ No error
 

90). a)/ The legal challenge to the new rule is likely b)/ to be finally settled in the weeks ahead, but until then, c)/ as per the Supreme Court’s directives, d)/ the larger warnings must be printed.e)/ No error
 

91). a)/ A lot of effort has been put in by the b)/ defence minister, Manohar Parrikar, since he took c)/ charge in November 2014, but the results on d)/ the ground have not live up to the billing. e)/No error
 

92). a)/ Its recommendations will be an important step towards b)/ fixing the fundamental problems of defence procurement, c)/ but will cause a major upheaval in the ministry d)/ which need to be managed smartly. e)/No error
 

93). a)/ As the finance ministry has b)/ focused on reducing the fiscal deficit, c)/ the budget for defence acquisition d)/ has also come under pressure. e)/No error
 

94). a)/ Racism is a social affliction which cannot be b)/ cure overnight, but the government and social c)/ organisations must acknowledge the gravity d)/ of the problem and act on it. e)/No error
 

95). a)/ To make a fair assessment, it wasn’t that student b)/ groups or individuals who practiced a different kind of politics c)/ was entirely absent from campuses, especially d)/ in places like JNU or HCU. e)/No error
 

96). a)/ The success of neoliberal thought lied not b)/ in its dream of success but in turning c)/ systematic failures in d)/ individual and atomized failures. e)/No error
 

97). a)/ Even the point of studying in an IIT b)/ was not to learn engineering but to c)/ use it as a signal device to the corporate d)/ sector as being above the crowd. e)/No error
 

98). a)/ As this idea seeped into common sense, b)/ every phase of student life turned c)/ into a preparation for the d)/ ultimate aim of being rich and famous. e)/No error
 

99). a)/ One of them, headed by Vivek Rae, b)/ has been tasked to reform c)/ the organisation, system and process d)/ of acquisition in the ministry. e)/No error
 

100). a)/ The new Defence Procurement Procedure (DPP) was meant to be a radical b)/ departure from the earlier versions, which would c)/ promote “Make in India” in the defence sector and make India d)/ a major defence exports in the near future. e)/No error
 

 

ANSWER KEY

 

1.

B

Replace “solve” with “solved”

2.

D

Replace “in” with “on”

3.

A

Replace “survey” with “surveys”

4.

D

it should be “as important as”

5.

E

No Error

6.

D

Omit “the”
it should be “and on the output side to corporates”.

7.

A

Replace “a” with “an”

8.

E

No Error

9.

A

Replace “month” with “months”

10.

D

Replace “announce” with “announced”

11.

E

No Error

12.

D

Replace “an” with “a”

13.

C

Replace “could” with “would”

14.

B

Replace “point” with “points”

15.

A

Replace “were” with “was”

16.

D

Replace “at” with “on”

17.

C

Replace “push” with “pushing”

18.

E

No Error

19.

D

it should be “for monetary policy easing”
Replace “with” with “for”

20.

D

it should be all things. Replace “thing” with “things”

21.

B

Replace “report” with “reports”
The expression the number is followed by a singular verb while the expression a number is followed by a plural verb.

22.

E

No Error

23.

A

Replace “find” with “found”

24.

D

Replace “whom” with “who”

25.

C

Replace “had” with “has” Given sentence is in present tense so “has” should be use instead of “had”

26.

C

Replace “strongest” with “stronger”

27.

E

No Error

28.

C

replace “would” with “should”
Would –would is the past tense form of will. Because it is a past tense it is used: to talk about the past.
to talk about hypotheses – things that are imagined rather than true.
for politeness. should – “Should” is most commonly used to make recommendations or give advice. It can also be used to express obligation as well as expectation.

29.

A

replace “has” with “have”

30.

3

Replace “would” with “will”

31.

3

Replace “that” with “than”
better…than

32.

2

Replace “come up” with “come away”
come away–to leave in a particular state or condition

33.

2

Replace “become” with “became”

34.

1

turning out… to develop in a particular way, or to have a particular result

35.

1

an Islamic

36.

5

No Error

37.

3

Replace “authority” with “Authorities”

38.

2

Replace “were” with “was”

39.

2

Replace ‘put’ with ‘putting’.

40.

2

Replace ‘include’ with ‘included’.

41.

4

Replace ‘that’ with ‘they’.

42.

1

Replace ‘though’ with ‘although’.

43.

2

Replace ‘has’ with ‘had’.

44.

2

Replace ‘whom’ with ‘ Who ’.

45.

3

Replace ‘year’ with ‘years’.

46.

4

4 Replace ‘with’ with ‘within’.

47.

1

Replace ‘indicate’ with ‘indicates’.

48.

5

No Error

49.

B

B. — Web designing must be responsive so that visitors who are accessing the website by making use of various operating system will get clear view of your site.

50.

C

C.Today, numerous companies or organizations prefer mobile applications and websites which are solely designed for mobile devices or smart phones, which reach their target audience directly.

 

 

SR.NO.

Ans

Explanation

51.

B

Replace “on” with “in”

52.

D

Replace “with” with “by”

53.

A

Replace “much” with “many”

54.

E

No error

55.

E

No error

56.

C

Omit “the” “the” is Superficial

57.

A

it should be the government “needs”

58.

C

it should be “hospitals”

59.

B

Replace “any” with “some”

60.

C

Replace “to” with “for”

61.

C

Replace “fire” with “fires”

62.

A

Replace “larger” with “largest”

63.

E

No error

64.

B

Replace “thing” with “things”

65.

C

Replace “was” with “were”

66.

C

Replace “at” with “in”

67.

E

No error

68.

D

Replace “for” with “of”

69.

C

it should be “workplaces” instead of “workplace”

70.

E

No error

71.

B

it should be since instead of for, We use SINCE to show that the action is from a definite point or period in the past up to now

72.

A

Replace “needs” with “need” Need is plural; needs is singular.

73.

E

No error

74.

A

it should be weeks instead of week.

75.

B

Replace “their” with “its”

76.

E

No error

77.

C

it should be plural according to sentence so Replace “project” with “projects”

78.

D

Replace “player” with “players”.

79.

C

Replace “through” with “across” Through is movement from one side of an enclosed space to the other side

80.

A

Replace “a” with “an”

81.

C

it should be on cigarette package.

82.

B

Replace “have” with “has”.
Has will be correct form of verb according to the subject the high imposition.

83.

B

“of” will be appropriate instead of “for” with cigarette consumption, so replace “for” with “of”

84.

A

it should be government’s.

85.

E

No error

86.

D

it should be food prices amounts not amount.

87.

B

Replace “don’t” with “doesn’t”.

88.

E

No error

89.

B

Replace “climbed” with “climbing”
Is/am/are – V+ing

90.

B

it should be till then, so replace “until” with “till”

91.

D

Replace “live” with “lived” Has/have + 3rd form

92.

D

Replace “need” with “needs”

93.

E

No error

94.

B

Replace “cure” with “cured”

95.

C

Replace “was” with “were”

96.

C

Replace “in” with “into”

97.

C

Replace “signal” with “signaling”

98.

E

No error

99.

E

No error

100.

D

Exports should be replaced with Exporter.

 

SPOTTING ERROR SET- 2

SPOTTING ERROR SET- 2

62675   07-Apr-2018, Sat

Direction for Qns ()Read each part of the sentence to find out if there is any error in it. The error if any will be in part of that sentence. The corresponding alphabet is the answer. If there is no error, mark e.

Check for Logical Consistency, Grammatical verb forms and vocabulary usage)

 

1). a)/ No sooner than their sun-dried phones crackled b)/ back to life, Chennaiites battered by freak weather and c)/ bruised by administrative fiascoes, heard d)/ the chief minister’s recorded message. e)/ No error

 

2). a)/ It is clear, by now, that following the b)/ old-fashioned policy of ‘bleeding India c)/ by a thousand cuts’ results in Pakistan d)/ incurring ten of thousands of cuts itself. e)/ No error

 

3). a)/ In my surveys, I find that b)/ in many parts of India, c)/ the Jan-Dhan Yojana d)/ is called the Modi Yojana. e)/ No error

 

4). a)/ President Pranab Mukherjee participated b)/ in the Moscow celebrations to c)/ mark the 70th anniversary of d)/ Russia’s victory in World War II. e)/ No error
 

5). a)/ At last Amar found b)/Naresh under the shade c)/of a tree and brought him d) /back on the city.e)/ No error

 

6). a)/Mother sat through her chair b)/by the fire to read her book c)/but her ten little boys were d) /too noisy. e) /No error

 

7). a)/Each Tuesday evening we visited b)/ the farmers in the area c)/ and held a meeting d)/ to discuss the problems they faced. e)/No error

 

8). a)/ He has travelled b)/ all over the world c)/ yet he speaks d)/ several languages fluently. e)/No error

 

9). a)/ Needless to say, the b)/ winter session may have c)/enough grist for d)/heated exchanges. e)/No error

 

10). a)/ Once we move into the b)/ realm of communities, c)/ these differentiations only d)/ become most complex. e)/ No error

 

11). a)/ There is no “you are not welcome” b)/ board hanging outside; yet the c)/ insider defends the ‘pure’ d)/ with his mere glance. e)/ No error

 

12). a)/ With nominal GDP growing at b)/ lower then the real GDP, further addition c)/ to debt will increase debt-GDP d)/ ratio at a much faster rate. e)/ No error
 

13). a)/ ‘Higher’ art becomes informal, b)/ natural and accessible, while c)/ the ‘lower’ become serious, d)/ valuably and respected. e)/ No error

 

14). a)/ Creating a mechanism to resolve the disputes, even if b)/ only 20 per cent of this is recovered, c)/ could fetch the government over Rs.1 lakh crore and, more d)/ importantly, it would create a more favourable investment climate. e)/ No error
 

15). a)/ this is only a beginning and does not b)/ negate the possibility of c)/ another kind of experiment d)/ emerging in the highest echelons of art. e)/ No error

 

16). a)/ The engagement itself b)/ continues to be a learning c)/ process where we d)/ constantly discover differences. e)/ No error

 

17). a)/ While the children of the village is b)/ enthusiastic performers in the festival, the c)/ adults come as onlookers: d)/ laughing, smiling and enjoying the art. e)/ No error

 

18). a)/ Yet the governments of both b)/ country have a magnificent c)/ opportunity today to unite their d)/ people around a national agenda. e)/ No error

 

19). a)/ That it has taken six long years b)/ to emerge is sobering but c)/ also underlines that it is not d)/ a opportunity that can be missed. e)/ No error

 

20). a)/ The Universal Declaration of Human Rights b)/ adopted at December 10, 1948 states c)/ that “all human beings are born d)/ free and equal in dignity and rights. e)/ No error

 

21). a)/ It brought human rights of LGBTQ people in line with b)/ international legal norms applied in Europe, c)/ the U.S., Canada, South Africa, Australia, d)/ New Zealand, Hong Kong and Fiji between others. e)/ No error

 

22). a)/ This was in a case of miscarriage b)/ of justice where matrimonial c)/ disputes led to allegations d)/ of criminal conduct. e)/ No error

 

23). a)/ It is neither advisable b)/ or possible to enumerate c)/ all the grounds on which such d)/ a petition may be entertained. e)/ No error

 

24). a)/ If Justice Kirby and Justice Cameron were to b)/ visit India after the Koushal c)/ judgment, was they be treated as d)/ honoured guests or as suspected felons? e)/ No error

 

25). a)/ It may not be to late to b)/ do so, but the government c)/ should keep in mind that d)/ luck favours the brave. e)/ No error

 

26). a)/ They will also likely reverse the process b)/ of development in rural areas that had been c)/ saw in terms of rising access to education, d)/ particularly among women, and nutrition. e)/ No error

 

27). a)/ This is the first time in the last b)/ five decade that the wages of c)/ casual workers in rural areas d)/ have declined in real terms. e)/ No error

 

28). a)/ One of the strongest indicators b)/ of the distress in the rural c)/ economy and among the d)/ poor is the wage rate growth.e)/ No error

 

29). a)/ With the government using the opportunity of falling b)/ petroleum prices to shore upto revenues by raising excise c)/ on petroleum products, even a significant reduction d)/ in diesel prices did not materialise for farmers. e)/ No error

 

30). a)/ The thrust of the 2015 b)/ railway budget is to make c)/ the Indian Railways (IR) a prime d)/ mover of the economy. e)/ No error

 

31). a)/ Any relaxation in revenue deficit b)/ should also show up in fiscal deficit, c)/ thus ensuring no d)/ compression in capital expenditure targets. e)/ No error

 

32). a)/ With core sector growth at just b)/ 1.9 per cent, there is no way the IR can c)/ achieve the targeted incremental d)/ freight loading for almost 8 per cent. e)/ No error
 

33). a)/ The forthcoming Union budget could be b)/ presented at a time when there are strong c)/ headwinds from the global financial d)/ markets and debilitated global growth. e)/ No error

 

34). a)/ Despite India being the faster b)/ growing economy in the world c)/ today, do we still need d)/ growth-revival policies. e)/ No error

 

35). a)/ In the absence of the b)/ commission guidance, there c)/ appears to be some institutional d)/ vacuum in this regard. e)/ No error

 

36). a)/ The adoption of a new GDP b)/ methodology and the lack c)/ of its back series make such d)/ estimates quite unenviable. e)/ No error

 

37). a)/ Under the act, the Central government fiscal deficit, b)/ as a percentage of GDP, was fixed at 3.9 per c)/ cent for FY16, and 3.5 per cent d)/ (FY17) and 3.0 per cent (FY18) at rolling targets. e)/ No error

 

38). a)/ Deviation in any of these targets could b)/ not only result in contraction c)/ of economic activity but the put pressure d)/ on public debt and its servicing. e)/ No error
 

39). a)/ Our own analysis in the past suggest that these targets b)/ are internally consistent with high growth, provided c)/ all the targets are achieved and not just d)/ the headline target of fiscal deficits. e)/ No error

 

40). a)/ The United States insure b)/ its farmers (about 123 million hectares) c)/ and gives subsidy to the d)/ tune of around 70 per cent. e)/ No error

 

41). a)/ China insures its farmers for b)/ a sown area of around 75 c)/ million hectares with a subsidy on d)/ premiums of about 80 per cent. e)/ No error

 

42). a)/ India plans to cover around 50 per cent b)/ of its cropped area, that hovers c)/ around 195 million hectares, over the next five d)/ years if the scheme really takes off. e)/ No error

 

43). a)/ Given that the government are already shelling out around b)/ Rs 5,000 crore annually (average for the last five years) through c)/ its clumsy mechanism for disaster relief, d)/ the additional cost of the scheme isn’t much. e)/ No error
 

44). a)/ The scheme would be the b)/ harbinger of change, c)/ provided that two d)/ conditions are quenched. e)/ No error

 

45). a)/ This is critical, as the crop-damage b)/ assessment exercise had to be c)/ matched with data on plots and bank d)/ account numbers of the tillers. e)/ No error
 

46). a)/ The regularity of these summits ever b)/ since Putin assumed power testifies to the value attached to them c)/ as occasions to take stock, in a bid to d)/ keep cementing ties and building on them. e)/ No error

 

47). a)/ India is keen that, as Russia proceeds b)/ to construct 12 nuclear reactors, c)/ there should be d)/ progressive transfer at technology. e)/ No error

 

48). a)/ India has long pressed b)/ for greater access to c)/ Russia abundant oil d)/ and gas resources. No error

 

49). a)/ Indian Oil and Oil India has signed a b)/ memorandum with Rosneft, which c)/ paves the way for the acquisition of 10 per cent d)/ stakes in the Taas-Yuriakh oil assets. e)/ No error

 

50). a)/ In recent years, India have b)/ entered into more than three c)/ dozen “strategic partnerships”, but d)/ France remains the original one. e)/ No error

 

51). a)/ Nagpur, Chandigarh and Puducherry b)/ have been identified as three c)/ cities where French technical assistance d)/ and funding had also been promised. e)/ No error

 

52). a)/ This is the strategic dialogue b)/ that became institutionalised c)/ at the level of the d)/ National Security Advisers. e)/ No error

 

53). a)/ The terrorist attacks last year, on the Charlie Hebdo b)/ office in January and at multiple location in Paris in c)/ November, have changed the way d)/ France looks at global terrorism. e)/ No error

 

54). a)/ There is a realisation of b)/ vulnerability on account of c)/ the alienation at the d)/ French Muslim community. e)/ No error

 

55). a)/ Radicalisation and the B)/ growing appeal of the c)/ ideology of global d)/ jihad are a real threat. e)/ No error

 

56). a)/ This resulted in a standalone Joint b)/ Statement on counter-terrorism c)/ that seeks to do away with the d)/ caste system in terror strikes. e)/ No error

 

57). a)/ If New York, London and Paris b)/ were horrific, so must Mumbai, c)/ Beirut and Nairobi be, and the statement d)/ makes that point effectively. e)/ No error

 

58). a)/ It is expected that the b)/ negotiations of the financial c)/ terms would be concluded d)/ in coming months. e)/ No error

 

59). a)/ Two areas that have been lagging b)/ are economic and trade c)/ relations so well as the d)/ people-to-people exchanges. e)/ No error

 

60). a)/ The surest way to protect b)/ against adverse dynamics c)/ are to reduce the primary d)/ deficit as soon as possible. e)/ No error

 

61). a)/ a larger-than-expected borrowing programme could b)/ further pressure benchmark G-sec yields, c)/ pushing into private-sector borrowing costs and d)/ risking some crowding-out of private investment. e)/ No error

 

62). a)/ It has provided a much-needed anchor b)/ to monetary policy, creating credibility, enabling c)/ consistency, and anchoring medium-term d)/ inflation and rupee expectations. e)/ No error

 

63). a)/ The continued correction of b)/ oil has increased the c)/ possibility of some most d)/ monetary easing this year. e)/ No error

 

64). a)/In contrast, most market participants b)/ still project a linear acceleration of c)/ growth on 2016 and 2017, and any slowdown d)/ will come as a sticker-shock to them. e)/ No error

 

65). a)/ India worry is not external b)/ preparedness but growth c)/ risks that have increased d)/ in recent months. e)/ No error

 

66). a)/ Those who use tobacco at a younger b)/ age are more addicted to it c)/ and are less likely to quit the habit d)/ then those who begin using it later. e)/ No error

 

67). a)/ While the Ministry of Women and Child Development’s b)/ initiative to disincentivise the sale of tobacco products to c)/ children through stiff penalty is commendable, d)/ the real challenge will be in their enforcement. e)/ No error
 

68). a)/ Since the Indian taxation structure b)/ is not linked to income growth c)/ and inflation, tobacco products get d)/ cheaper relative for income affordability. e)/ No error
 

69). a)/ Early users are also less b)/ ignorant about the effects, c)/ making them easier prey d)/ for the tobacco companies. e)/ No error

 

70). a)/ In a study conducted in 2014 on Pakistan’s b)/ trade with India, Iran and Afghanistan, c)/ the business community, despite some reservations d)/ and caution, supported increases trade with India. e)/ No error

 

71). a)/ Most heartening was the b)/ shift in Punjab, considered c)/ central to the idea of d)/ enemy with New Delhi. e)/ No error

 

72). a)/ Earlier in 2014, even the Indian High b)/ Commissioner in Islamabad sounded c)/ convinced that from a Indian d)/ perspective, it was a different Pakistan. e)/ No error

 

73). a)/Inspite his limited access, the diplomat b)/ could notice the change — that c)/ Pakistanis were eager to do business d)/ and reach out across the border. e)/ No error
 

74). a)/ Multilateral agencies, though armed with b)/ a cookie-cutter approach, do take a c)/ global view and it is true that India is today d)/ the world’s fastest-growing large economy. e)/ No error

 

75). a)/ Mr. Modi was saw as decisive and b)/ growth-oriented, his credentials burnished c)/ by his record d)/ as the Chief Minister of Gujarat. e)/ No error

 

76). a)/ Expectations of a new dynamism in the b)/ economy were rife , at c)/ least between the corporates d)/ and the middle class. e)/ No error

 

77). a)/ The enthusiasm has dissipated by now. Mr. Modi is b)/ under pressure to show results on the economy front when, c)/ in fact, on the core issues, he have not been d)/ able to even show much initiative. e)/ No error

 

78). a)/ Even independently of b)/ this, the consensus within c)/ the political class d)/ militates against change. e)/ No error

 

79). a)/ We are possibly facing a ten-year b)/ cycle here, Part of it has to do with c)/ the global slowdown but it is also d)/ to be attributed to internal factor. e)/ No error
 

80). a)/ Individual wage are too b)/ meagre for savings to be c)/ carried forward d)/ to subsequent generations. e)/ No error

 

81). a)/ life within the plantation need b)/ to be improved for workers c)/ to continue there — for their sake d)/ and for the next generation. e)/ No error

 

82). a)/ Opportunities to pursue b)/ alternative jobs within c)/ and outside plantations d)/ need to be encouraged. e)/ No error

 

83). a)/ Plantations should have adequate b)/ labour representation on the board of c)/ governance and the culture of all-male d)/ management should be brought to a end. e)/ No error

 

84). a)/ The industry needs for b)/ understand the value c)/ of engaging labour d)/ in management conversations. e)/ No error

 

85). a)/ Tea requires an employee-run business b)/ model not only to serve the larger interests of labourers but c)/ also to serve the companies’ objective d)/ of incrementally increasing productivity. e)/ No error

 

86). a)/ Retail inflation, driven by b)/ food inflation, have been c)/ close to 5 per cent, despite wholesale inflation d)/ being in negative territory. e)/ No error
 

87). a)/ the economic recovery is far from b)/ convincing and a lot of government action c)/ are required to consolidate d)/ the positive signals in different sectors. e)/ No error

 

88). a)/ Opportunities to pursue b)/ alternative job within c)/ and outside plantations d)/ need to be encouraged. e)/ No error

 

89). a)/ It is imperative that b)/ the Centre co-ordinates c)/ with state to d)/ alleviate agrarian distress. e)/ No error

 

90). a)/ This could be a b)/ bumper year of c)/ the ever-lucrative d)/ tax avoidance industry. e)/ No error

 

91). a)/ As a participant of this b)/ project, India is expected c)/ to implement on least d)/ some of these measures. e)/ No error

 

92). a)/As a result, India neonatal mortality rate b)/ is high, birth weight is low, and far too many c)/ children suffer the consequences of d)/ being undernourished in the womb. e)/ No error

 

93). a)/ The primary cause of concern b)/ here is the quality of India’s c)/ political leadership, which has d)/ consistently betrayed its own taxmen. e)/ No error

 

94). a)/Maternity entitlements would b)/ be a good idea even if they c)/ wasn’t already d)/ written into law. e)/ No error

 

95). a)/ It was a sane suggestion because b)/ the bulk of P-note investments c)/ in the Indian stock market was d)/ from tax havens such as Cayman Islands. e)/ No error
 

96). a)/ it urges nation to curb treaty b)/ abuse by amending their d)/ Double Taxation d)/ Avoidance Agreements (DTAA) suitably. e)/ No error

 

97). a)/ Tax Havens and the Men Who Stole b)/ the World, financial journalist Nicholas Shaxson c)/ notes how Mauritius are a popular hub d)/ for what is known as “round-tripping”. e)/ No error

 

98). a)/ He write, “A wealthy Indian, say, will b)/ send his money to Mauritius, where it is dressed up in a secrecy c)/ structure, then disguised as foreign d)/ investment, before being returned to India. e)/ No error

 

99). a)/ The Supreme Court issued b)/ a notice to the Centre about c)/ non-implementation of d)/ maternity entitlements. e)/ No error

 

100). a)/ Prime Minister Narendra Modi have b)/ just launched the Start-up India c)/ scheme, first alluded to d)/ on Independence Day last year. e)/ No error

 

1.

A

Replace “than” with “then”
No sooner Then

2.

D

it should be “tens of thousands”
Replace “ten” with “tens”

3.

A

3Replace “find” with “found”

4.

E

No Error

5.

D

Here, back in the city should be used because ‘on’ is not appropriate preposition.

6.

A

Here, Mother sat in/on her chair or Mother was siting on her chair should be used.

7.

D

Add ‘which’ after problems.

8.

C

Change ‘yet’ to ‘and’

9.

E

No Error

10.

D

Replace “most” with “more”

11.

E

No Error

12.

B

Replace “then” with “than”
the correct word is “Lower than”

13.

D

Replace “valuably” with “valuable”

14.

D

Replace “would” with “will”

15.

D

Replace “highest” with “higher”

16.

E

No Error

17.

A

Replace “is” with “are”
Given subject “children” is plural so verb should be plural.

18.

B

Replace “country” with “countries”
”both” indicate two thing so “countries” will be correct word instead of country..

19.

D

Replace “a” with “an”

20.

B

Replace “at” with “on”

21.

D

Replace “betwwen” with “among”

22.

E

No Error

23.

B

Replace “or” with “nor”
Correct sequence is “neither…nor”
and “either…or”

24.

C

Replace “was” with “would”

25.

A

Replace “to” with “too”

26.

C

Replace “saw” with “seen”
use third form of verb with bad been

27.

B

it should be “five decades”

28.

E

No Error

29.

B

Replace “shore upon” with “shore up”

30.

B

Replace “is” with “was”

31.

E

No Error

32.

D

Replace “for” with “of”

33.

A

It should be “would be”

34.

A

Replace “faster” with “fastest”

35.

B

it should be commission’s guidance

36.

E

No Error

37.

D

Replace “at” with “as”

38.

C

it should be “but also”
omit “the”

39.

A

Replace ” suggest” with ” suggests”

40.

A

it should be “insures” because subject is singular so verb must be singular.

41.

E

No Error

42.

B

Replace “that” with “which”
That normally refers to things but it may refer to a class or type of person.
which refers only to things

43.

A

Replace “are” with “is”
The government is singular verb so use is instead of are

44.

A

Replace “would” with “could”

45.

B

Replace “had” with “has”
Given sentence is in present tense so it should be “has” instead of “had”

46.

E

No Error

47.

D

Replace “at” with “of”

48.

C

it should be “Russia’s”
Apostrophes are used to indicate possession.

49.

A

Replace “has” with “have”

50.

A

Replace “have” with “has”

51.

D

Replace “had” with “has”

52.

E

No Error

53.

B

Replace “location” with “locations”

54.

C

Replace “at” with “in”

55.

D

Replace “are” with “is”

56.

C

Replace “that” with “which”

57.

E

No Error

58.

C

Replace “would” with “will”

59.

C

Replace “so” with “as”

60.

C

Replace “are” with “is”

61.

C

Replace “pushing into” with “pushing up”

62.

E

No Error

63.

C

Replace “most” with “more”

64.

C

Replace “on” with “in”

65.

A

Replace “India” with “India”s”

66.

D

Replace “then” with “than”

67.

D

Replace “their” with “its”

68.

D

Replace “for” with “to”

69.

E

No Error

70.

D

Replace “increases” with “increased”

71.

D

it should be “enmity”

72.

C

it should be “an Indian”
Replace “a” with “an”

73.

A

Replace “Inspite” with “despite”

74.

E

No Error

75.

A

Replace “saw” with “seen”

76.

C

Replace “between” with “among”

77.

C

Replace “have” with “has”

78.

E

No Error

79.

D

Replace “factor” with “factors”

80.

A

Replace “wage” with “wages”

81.

A

Replace “need” with “needs”

82.

E

No Error

83.

D

Replace “a” with “an”

84.

A

Replace “for” with “to”

85.

E

No Error

86.

B

Replace “have” with “has”

87.

C

Replace “are” with “is”

88.

B

Replace “job” with “jobs”

89.

C

Replace “state” with “states”

90.

B

Replace “of” with “for”

91.

C

Replace “on” with “at”

92.

A

Replace “India” with “India’s”

93.

E

No Error

94.

C

Replace “wasn’t ” with “weren’t ”

95.

C

Replace “was” with “were”

96.

A

Replace “nation” with “nations”

97.

C

Replace “are” with “is”

98.

A

it should be he “writes”.

99.

E

No Error

100.

A

Replace “have” with “has”

 

READING COMPREHENSION SET - 4

READING COMPREHENSION SET - 4

2370   07-Apr-2018, Sat

 

(RC- 1) Directions (1-15): Read the following passage carefully and answer these questions given below it. Certain words/phrases have been printed in BOLD to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.

              

                As increasing dependence on information systems develops, the need for such systems to be reliable and secure also becomes more essential. As growing numbers of ordinary citizens use computer networks for banking, shopping, etc., network security is potentially a massive problem. Over the last few years the need for computer and information system security has become increasingly evident, as web sites are being defaced with greater frequency, more and more denial-of-service attacks are being reported, credit card information is being stolen, there is increased sophistication of hacking tools that are openly available to the public on the Internet, and there is increasing damage being caused by viruses and worms to critical information system resources.

At the organizational level, institutional mechanisms have to be designed in order to review policies, practices, measures, and procedures to review e-security regularly and assess whether these are appropriate to their environment. It would be helpful if organizations share information about threats and vulnerabilities, and implement procedures for rapid and effective cooperation to prevent, detect and respond to security incidents. As new threat and vulnerabilities are continuously discovered there is a strong need for cooperation among organizations and, if necessary, we could also consider cross-border information sharing. We need to understand threats and dangers that could be vulnerable to and the steps that need to be taken to mitigate these vulnerabilities. We need to understand success control systems and methodology, telecommunication and network security, and security management practice. We should be well versed in the area of application and systems development security, cryptography, operations security and physical security.

The banking sector is poised for more challenges in the near future. Customers of banks can now look forward to a large array of new offerings by banks. From an era of mere competition, banks are now cooperation among themselves so that the synergistic benefits are share among all the players. This would result in the formation of shared payment networks (a few shared ATM networks have already been commissioned by banks), offering payment services beyond the existing time zones. The Reserve Bank is also facilitating new projects such as the Multi Application Smart Card project which, when implemented, would facilitate transfer of funds using electronic means and in a safe and secure manner across the length and breadth of the country, with reduced dependence on paper currency. The opportunities of e-banking or e-power in general need to be harnessed so that banking is available to all customers in such a manner that they would feel most convenient, and if required, without having to visit a branch of a bank. All these will have to be accompanied with a high level of comfort, which again boils down to the issue of e-security.

One of the biggest advantages accruing to banks in the future would be the benefits that arise from the introduction of Real Time Gross Settlement (RTGS). Funds management by treasuries of banks would be helped greatly by RTGS. With almost 70 banks having joined the RTGS system, more large value funds transfers are taking place through this system. The implementation of Core Banking solutions by banks is closely related to RTGS too. Core Banking will make anywhere banking a reality for customers of each bank, while RTGS bridges the need for inter-bank funds movement. Thus, the days of depositing a cheque for collection and a long wait for its realization would soon be a thing of the past for those customers who would opt for electronic movement of funds, using the RTGS system, where the settlement would be on an almost instantaneous basis. Core Banking is already in vogue in many private sector and foreign banks; while its implementation is at different stages amongst the public sector banks.

IT would also facilitate better and more scientific decision making within banks. Information systems now provide decision makers in banks with a great deal of information which, along with historical data and trend analysis, help in the building up of efficient Management Information Systems, This, in turn, would help in better Asset Liability Management (ALM) which, in today’s would of hairline margins, is a key requirement for the success of banks in their operational activities. Another benefit which e-banking could provide for, relates to Customer Relationship Management (CRM). CRM helps in stratification of customers and evaluating customer need on a holistic basis which could be paving the way for competitive edge for banks and complete customer care for customers of banks.

 

1). The content of the passage mainly emphasizes

(a) the threat of competition among banks providing tele-banking services

(b) the scientific advancements that have facilitated quicker and scientific banking procedures

(c) threats to on-line banking and remedies to guard against them

(d) e-banking and its impact on global economy

(e) None of these

 

2). What, according to the passage, is the prerequisite to lessen the threats of hacking?

(a) Effective measures to combat vulnerability

(b) Environment-friendly gadgets to remedy damages

(c) Detection and timely prevention of the threat

(d) Effective mechanism to evaluate the e-security

(e) None of these

 

3). In what way does IT catalyse better decision-making?

(A) By providing updated data and trend analysis.

(B) By providing increasing opportunities of personal contacts.

(C) By ensuring better asset-liability management.

(a) A only                           

(b) B only            

(c) C only            

(d) A and B only               

(e) All the three

 

4). What is the advantage of RTGS to the customers?

(a) Anywhere banking                                                 

(b) Instant realization of cheque

(c) Easy withdrawal of cash                                       

(d) Hassle-free depositing of cash-loads

(e) Availability of transaction facilities at any other bank

 

5). What, according to the author, should be the ultimate goal(s) of e-banking?

(A) Customers’ convenience.

(B) Avoidance of heavy footfall of customers in bank branches.

(C) Protection of customers’ interests.

(a) A and B only  

(b) B and C only   

(c) A and C only   

(d) All the three   

(e) None of these

 

6). Why is it obligatory that a system should be perfectly dependable?

(a) To justify escalating dependence on system

(b) To ensure security for the system

(c) To disallow any pilferage whatsoever

(d) To ascertain proper logistic support

(e) None of these

 

7). Which of the following is/are recommended by the author to ensure security of banking transactions?

(A) Continuous re-examination of policies and procedures.

(B) Ensuring appropriateness of the security measures.

(C) Cooperation among various users to identify and prevent threat.

(a) A and B only               

(b) B and C only

(c) A and C only

(d) A and B only

(e) None of these

 

8). Which of the following statements definitely False in the context of the passage?

(A) Transfer of funds to any part of the country through electronic media is under active consideration.

(B) Cooperation among various competing banks is helpful to all of them in sharing legitimate benefits.

(C) Assessment of customer needs and their clustering in homogeneous groups provides competitive edge to banks.

(a) Only A           

(b) Only B and C

(c) Only A and C

(d) All the three

(e) None of these

 

9). Computer-savvy citizens are also shared to transact on-line due to the following except

(a) smuggling of vital information regarding credit cards

(b) availability of hacking tools on the internet

(c) damage by viruses to critical information

(d) sophisticated, well-guarded on-line transaction devices

(e) denial-of-service attacks that put valid customers to inconvenience

 

Directions (10-12): Choose the word which MOST OPPOSITE in meaning to the word printed in BOLD as used in, the passage.

 

10). Instantaneous

(a) Delayed        

(b) Quick             

(c) Immediate                   

(d) Eventful        

(e) Unconventional

 

11). Vulnerable

(a) Susceptible   

(b) Rigid              

(c) Invincible                     

(d) Prone                 

(e) Weakling

 

12). Massive

(a) Tiny                

(b) Gigantic                       

(c) Bulky                             

(d) Insignificant 

(e) Acut

 

 

Directions (13-15): Choose the word which is most nearly the SAME in meaning as the word printed in BOLD as used in the passage.

 

 

13). Era

(a) Year               

(b) Epoch                           

(c) Span               

(d) Spirit                             

(e) Instinct

 

14). Poised

(a) Balanced      

(b) Adulterated 

(c) Stupefied                     

(d) Launched                    

(e) Ready

 

15). Mitigate

(a) Investigate   

(b) Allay                             

(c) Elevate                         

(d) Invigorate           

(e) Amplify

 

 

 (RC-2)  Directions (1-15): Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words/expressions are given in bold in the passage of help you locate them while answering some of the questions:

                                  A few weeks ago, I ran into an old friend who is currently one of the mandarins deciding India’s economic and financial policies. He asked “And so, how is IIT doing?” As one can only indulge in friendly banter at such gatherings, I responded with ‘Not so well actually. Your market-friendly policies have forced up to raise the fee, so we have 50% fewer Ph.D. applicants this year’. Not batting an eyelid, he shot back: “Obviously. Your Ph.D. students don’t have any market value.” Taken aback, I shifted to a more serious tone and tried to start a discussion on the need for research in these globalised times. But he had already walked away. The last word on the imperatives of the ‘market’ had been spoken.

This view of higher education should not have surprised me. Worthies who look at everything as consumer products classify higher education as a ‘non-merit’ good. Non-merit goods are those where only the individual benefits from acquiring them and not the society as a whole. Multilateral agencies like The World Bank have too been pushing countries like India to stop subsidies to higher education.

 

When Ron Brown, former US commerce secretary visited India, a public meeting was organized at IIT Delhi. At that meeting I asked him: “I understand that since the 19th century all the way up to the 1970s, most land grant and State universities in the US virtually provided free education to State citizens. Was that good for the economy, or should they have charged high fees in the early 20th century? “He replied,” it was great for the economy. It was one of the best things that the US government did at that particular time in American history-building institutions of higher education which were accessible to the masses of the people. I think it is one of the reasons why our economy grew and prospered, one of the way in which the US was able to close some of its social gaps. So people who lived in rural areas would have the same kind of access to higher education as people living in other parts of the country. It was one of the reasons for making America strong.”

Our policy-makers seem unaware that their mentors in the US did not follow policies at home which they now prescribe for other countries. Ron Brown’s remarks summarise the importance policy-makers in the US place on higher education as a vehicle for upward mobility for the poorer sectors of their population. Even today, a majority of Americans study in State-run institutions. Some of these institutions, like Berkeley and the Universities of Michigan, Illinois, Ohio, Wisconsin and Taxas are among the best in the world. The annual tuition charged from State residents (about $5000 a year) is about a month’s salary paid to a lecturer. Even this fee is waived for most students. In addition, students receive stipends for books, food and hostel charges. The basic principle is that no student who gets admission to a university should have to depend on parental support if it is not available.

Ron Brown’s remarks went unnoticed in India. Every other day some luminary or the other opines that universities and technical education institutions should increase their charges and that such education should not be subsidized. Most editorials echo these sentiments. Eminent industrialists pontificate that we should run educational institutions like business houses. Visiting experts from the Bank and the IMF, in their newly emerging concern for the poor, advise us to divert funds from higher education to primary education.

 

1).The author of the passage seems to be a/an

(a) official working in economic affairs department

(b) financial advisor to government or a bureaucrat in finance department

(c) social activist devoted to illiteracy eradication programme

(d) educationist in IIT or some such Educational Institution

(e) industrialist employing highly qualified technocrats

 

2). What was the net tangible impact of raising fees on the higher level of technological research?

(a) The number of prospective researchers was reduced to almost a half

(b) The market value of Ph.D. students was almost lost

(c) Research studies attained a higher market value

(d) Research became more and more relevant to market demands

(e) In the current globalised times, the need for research was less than ever

 

3). According to the author, the US policy-makers consider education as a

(a) hindrance in the way to economic growth and prosperity

(b) means for achieving upward mobility for the poor

(c) wastage of resources and a totally futile exercise

(d)  matter of concern only for the parents of the students

(e) None of these

 

4). Who among the following support the view that higher education should be free to everyone aspiring for it?

(A) Editors and Journalists’          

(B) Industrialists      

(C) Visiting Experts from Banks and IMF

(a) A only                           

(b) B only                           

(c) C only            

(d) All the three

(e) None of these

 

5). Which of the following makes the policy-makers classify education as “non-merit” commodity?

(a) The tendency of people to seek any individual benefits

(b) The attitude of giving unreasonably more weightage to society

(c) The tendency of viewing everything as mere consumer product

(d) Undue pressure from International Agencies like the World Bank, etc.

(e) None of these

 

6). What was Ron Brown’s reaction to the author’s question on free education provided by US universities to their citizens? Ron Brown

(a) criticized the US government for their action

(b) appreciated the author but remained non-committed

(c) ignored the fact and gave an ambiguous reaction

(d) mentioned that the author’s information was not correct

(e) None of these

 

7). The basic principle adopted by the renowned State-run universities in the US is that the students __________.

(a) must pay the lecturer’s salary from their own resources

(b) should earn while they learn and pay higher education fees

(c) must seek the necessary help from their parents on whom they depend

(d) need not be required to depend upon their parents for acquiring higher education

(e) None of these

 

8). What was the outcome of US strategy of imparting free university education to US citizens?

(a) Education was easily accessible to the vast majority

(b) US citizens found it unaffordable and expensive

(c) US Economy suffered due to such a lop-sided decision

(d) US government could not plug the loopholes in their economic policies

(e) None of these

 

9). Multilateral agencies like The World Bank have been __________

(a) pressurizing India and other countries to stop substantial higher education

(b) insisting on discontinuance of subsidies to higher education

(c) analyzing the possibilities of increasing subsidies to higher learning

(d) emphasizing on the need of lowering fees for higher education

(e) forcing countries like India to strengthen only industrial development

 

Directions (10-12): Which of the following is MOST NEARLY THE SAME in meaning as the word printed in bold as used in the passage?

 

 

10). Unaware

(a) Famous         

(b) Ignorant                      

(c) Familiar           

 (d) Unworthy    

(e) Negligent

 

11). WAIVED

(a) Moved                         

(b) Charged                       

(c) Condoned                    

(d) Overlooked  

(e) Paid

 

12). MASSES

(a) Institutions   

(b) Groups                         

(c) Students                       

(d) Officers                       

(e) Parents

 

 

Directions (13-15): Which of the following is MOST OPPOSITE in meaning of the word printed in bold as used in the passage?

 

 

13). GLOBALISED

(a) Universalized              

(b) Liberalized                  

(c) Earthly           

(d) Prospering                  

(e) Decentralized

 

14). PROSPERED

(a) Declined       

(b) Progressed                  

(c) Improved      

(d) Decomposed             

(e) Enlightened

 

15). CONCERN

(a) Worry                           

(b) Anxiety                        

(c) Sympathy      

(d) Indifference               

(e) Nullification

 

 

(RC- 3) Directions (1-3): Each of the reading comprehension questions is based on the content of a passage. After reading the passage answer all questions pertaining to it on the basis of what is stated or implied in the passage. For each question, select the best answer of the choices given.

                              Eco efficiency (measures to minimize environmental impact through the reduction or elimination of waste from production processes) has become a goal for companies worldwide, with many realizing significant cost savings from such innovations. Peter Senge and Goran Carstedt see this development as laudable but suggest that simply adopting eco efficiency innovations could actually worsen environmental stresses in the future. Such innovations reduce production waste but do not alter the number of products manufactured nor the waste generated from their use and growth. Moreover, there is no guarantee that increased economic growth from eco efficiency will come in similarly eco efficient ways, since in today’s global markets, greater profits may be turned into investment capital that could easily be reinvested in old-style eco-inefficient industries.

Even a vastly more eco efficient industrial system could, were it to grow much larger, generate more total waste and destroy more habitat and species than would a smaller, less eco efficient economy. Senge and Carstedt argue that to preserve the global environment and sustain economic growth, businesses must develop a new systemic approach that reduces total material use and total accumulated waste. Focusing exclusively on eco efficiency, which offers a compelling business case according to established thinking, may distract companies from pursuing radically different products and business models.

1). The primary purpose of the passage is to

(a) explain why a particular business strategy has been less successful than was once anticipated

(b) propose an alternative to a particular business strategy that has inadvertently caused ecological damage

(c) present a concern about the possible consequences of pursuing a particular business strategy

(d) make a case for applying a particular business strategy on a large scale than is currently practiced

(e) suggest several possible outcomes of companies’ failure to understand the economic impact of a particular business strategy

2). The passage mentions which of the following as a possible consequence of companies’ realization of greater profits through eco efficiency?

(a) The companies may be able to sell a greater number of products by lowering prices.

(b) The companies may be better able to attract investment capital in the global market.

(c) The profits may be reinvested to increase economic growth through eco efficiency.

(d) The profits may be used as investment capital for industries that are not eco efficient.

(e) The profits may encourage companies to make further innovations in reducing production waste.

 

3). The passage implies that which of the following is a possible consequence of a company’s adoption of innovations that increase its eco efficiency?

(a) Company profits resulting from such innovations may be reinvested in that company with no guarantee that the company will continue to make further improvements in eco efficiency.

(b) Company growth fostered by cost savings from such innovations may allow that company to manufacture a greater number of products that will be used and discarded, thus worsening environmental stress.

(c) A company that fails to realize significant cost savings from such innovations may have little incentive to continue to minimize the environmental impact of its production processes.

(d) A company that comes to depend on such innovations to increase its profits and growth may be vulnerable in the global market to competition from old-style eco-inefficient industries.

(e) A company that meets its eco efficiency goals is unlikely to invest its increased profits in the development of new and innovative eco efficiency measures.

 

(RC-4) Directions (1-5): Each of the reading comprehension questions is based on the content of a passage. After reading the passage answer all questions pertaining to it on the basis of what is stated or implied in the passage. For each question, select the best answer of the choices given.


               A recent study has provided clues to predator-prey dynamics in the late Pleistocene era. Researchers compared the number of tooth fractures in present-day carnivores with tooth fractures in carnivores that lived 36,000 to 10,000 years ago and that were preserved in the Rancho La Brea tar pits in Los Angeles. The breakage frequencies in the extinct species were strikingly higher than those in the present-day species.

In considering possible explanations for this finding, the researchers dismissed demographic bias because older individuals were not overrepresented in the fossil samples. They rejected preservation bias because a total absence of breakage in two extinct species demonstrated that the fractures were not the result of abrasion within the pits. They ruled out local bias because breakage data obtained from other Pleistocene sites were similar to the La Brea data. The explanation they consider most plausible is behavioral differences between extinct and present-day carnivores-in particular, more contact between the teeth of predators and the bones of prey due to more thorough consumption of carcasses by the extinct species. Such thorough carcass consumption implies to the researchers either that prey availability was low, at least seasonally, or that there was intense competition over kills and a high rate of carcass theft due to relatively high predator densities.

 

1). The primary purpose of the passage is to

(a) present several explanations for a well-known fact

(b) suggest alternative methods for resolving a debate

(c) argue in favor of a controversial theory

(d) question the methodology used in a study

(e) discuss the implications of a research finding

 

2). According to the passage, compared with Pleistocene carnivores in other areas, Pleistocene carnivores in the La Brea area

(a) included the same species, in approximately the same proportions

(b) had a similar frequency of tooth fractures

(c) populated the La Brea area more densely

(d) consumed their prey more thoroughly

(e) found it harder to obtain sufficient prey

 

3). According to the passage, the researchers believe that the high frequency of tooth breakage in carnivores found at La Brea was caused primarily by

(a) the aging process in individual carnivores

(b) contact between the fossils in the pits

(c) poor preservation of the fossils after they were removed from the pits

(e) the impact of carnivores’ teeth against the bones of their prey

(e) the impact of carnivores’ teeth against the bones of other carnivores during fights over kills

 

4). The researchers’ conclusion concerning the absence of demographic bias would be most seriously undermined if it were found that

(a) the older an individual carnivore is, the more likely it is to have a large number of tooth fractures

(b) the average age at death of a present-day carnivore is greater than was the average age at death of a Pleistocene carnivore

(c) in Pleistocene carnivore species, older individuals consumed carcasses as thoroughly as did younger individuals

(d) the methods used to determine animals’ ages in fossil samples tend to misidentify many older individuals as younger individuals

(e) data concerning the ages of fossil samples cannot provide reliable information about behavioral differences between extinct carnivores and present-day carnivores

 

5). According to the passage, if the researchers had NOT found that two extinct carnivore species were free of tooth breakage, the researchers would have concluded that

(a) the difference in breakage frequencies could have been the result of damage to the fossil remains in the La Brea pits

(b) the fossils in other Pleistocene sites could have higher breakage frequencies than do the fossils in the La Brea pits

(c) Pleistocene carnivore species probably behaved very similarly to one another with respect to consumption of carcasses

(d) all Pleistocene carnivore species differed behaviorally from present-day carnivore species

(e) predator densities during the Pleistocene era were extremely high

 

(RC- 5) Directions (1-7): Each of the reading comprehension questions is based on the content of a passage. After reading the passage answer all questions pertaining to it on the basis of what is stated or implied in the passage. For each question, select the best answer of the choices given.


                          Archaeology as a profession faces two major problems. First, it is the poorest of the poor. Only paltry sums are available for excavating and even less is available for publishing the results and preserving the sites once excavated. Yet archaeologists deal with priceless objects every day. Second, there is the problem of illegal excavation, resulting in museum-quality pieces being sold to the highest bidder.

I would like to make an outrageous suggestion that would at one stroke provide funds for archaeology and reduce the amount of illegal digging. I would propose that scientific archaeological expeditions and governmental authorities sell excavated artifacts on the open market. Such sales would provide substantial funds for the excavation and preservation of archaeological sites and the publication of results. At the same time, they would break the illegal excavator’s grip on the market, thereby decreasing the inducement to engage in illegal activities.

You might object that professionals excavate to acquire knowledge, not money. Moreover, ancient artifacts are part of our global cultural heritage, which should be available for all to appreciate, not sold to the highest bidder. I agree. Sell nothing that has unique artistic merit or scientific value. But, you might reply, everything that comes out of the ground has scientific value. Here we part company. Theoretically, you may be correct in claiming that every artifact has potential scientific value. Practically, you are wrong.

I refer to the thousands of pottery vessels and ancient lamps that are essentially duplicates of one another. In one small excavation in Cyprus, archaeologists recently uncovered 2,000 virtually indistinguishable small jugs in a single courtyard. Even precious royal seal impressions known as I’melekh handles have been found in abundance-more than 4,000 examples so far.

The basements of museums are simply not large enough to store the artifacts that are likely to be discovered in the future. There is not enough money even to catalog the finds; as a result, they cannot be found again and become as inaccessible as if they had never been discovered. Indeed, with the help of a computer, sold artifacts could be more accessible than are the pieces stored in bulging museum basements. Prior to sale, each could be photographed and the list of the purchasers could be maintained on the computer. A purchaser could even be required to agree to return the piece if it should become needed for scientific purposes.

It would be unrealistic to suggest that illegal digging would stop if artifacts were sold on the open market. But the demand for the clandestine product would be substantially reduced. Who would want an unmarked not when another was available whose provenance was known, and that was dated stratigraphically by the professional archaeologist who excavated it?

 

1). The primary purpose of the passage is to propose

(a) an alternative to museum display of artifacts

(b) a way to curb illegal digging while benefiting the archaeological profession

(c) a way to distinguish artifacts with scientific value from those that have no such value

(d) The governmental regulation of archaeological sites

(e) a new system for cataloging duplicate artifacts

 

2). The author implies that all of the following statements about duplicate artifacts are true EXCEPT

(a) a market for such artifacts already exists.

(b) such artifacts seldom have scientific value

(c) there is likely to be a continuing supply of such artifacts

(d) museums are well supplied with examples of such artifacts

(e) such artifacts frequently exceed in quality those already cataloged in museum collections

 

3). Which of the following is mentioned in the passage as a disadvantage of storing artifacts in museum basements?

(a) Museum officials rarely allow scholars access to such artifacts.

(b) Space that could be better used for display is taken up for storage.

(c) Artifacts discovered in one excavation often become separated from each other.

(d) Such artifacts are often damaged by variations in temperature and humidity.

(e) Such artifacts often remain uncatalogued and thus cannot be located once they are put in storage.

 

 

 

Directions (1-4): Choose the word which is most similar in meaning to the word printed in bold as used in the above passages.

 

4). excavate

(a) precise                         

(b) discernible                  

(c) explanatory  

(d) enumerate                  

(e) bore

5). outrageous

(a) alternatives  

(b) distracters                   

(c) answers                       

(d) atrocious                     

(e) directions

6). indistinguishable

(a) longitude      

(b) depletion                     

(c) identical                       

(d) replenishment            

(e) reclamation

7). inducement

(a) single                            

(b) alone                            

(c) lonely                           

(d) stimulus                       

(e) multiple

 

 

 

(RC- 6) Directions (1-15): Each of the reading comprehension questions is based on the content of a passage. After reading the passage answer all questions pertaining to it on the basis of what is stated or implied in the passage. For each question, select the best answer of the choices given.

                            The genesis of service tax emanates from the ongoing structural transformation of the Indian economy, whereby presently more than one-half of GDP originates from the services sector. Despite the growing presence of the services sector in the Indian economy, it remained out of the tax net prior to 1994-95, leading to a steady deterioration in tax-GDP ratio. The service tax was introduced in 1994-95 on a select category of services at a low rate of five percent. While the service tax rate and the coverage of services being taxed have increased ever since, the combined tax-GDP ratio of the Centre and States, nevertheless, deteriorated from 16.4 percent in 1985-86 to 14.1 percent in 1999-2000. It may be noted that between 1990-91 and 1998-99, the share of industrial sector in GDP dropped by 6.4 percentage points whereas almost 64 percent of the tax revenue was generated by indirect taxes for which industrial sector continues to be the principal tax base. On the other hand, during the same period, the share of services sector in GDP has increased by 10 percentage points and this sector has still remained poorly taxed.
The rationale for service tax, therefore, lies not only in arresting the falling tax-GDP ratio but also in ipso facto improving allocative efficiency in the economy as well as promoting equity. Against this backdrop, the service tax needs to be designed taking into account the fact that (i) the share of services in GDP is expanding; (ii) failure to tax services distorts consumer choices and encourages spending on services at the expense of goods; (iii) untaxed service traders are unable to claim value added tax (VAT) on service inputs, which encourages businesses to develop in-house services, creating further distortion and (iv) most services that are likely to become taxable are positively correlated with expenditure of high-income households and, therefore, service tax improves equity.In the Indian context, taxation of services assumes importance in the wake of the need for improving the revenue system, ensuring a measure of neutrality in taxation between goods and services and eventually helping to evolve an efficient system of domestic trade taxes, both at the Central and the State levels.The coverage of services under tax net has been progressively widened over the years. With effect of the Finance Act, 2004. 71 services are presently contributing to the service tax collections. The service tax is applicable to all parts of India except the State of Jammu and Kashmir and is leviable on the gross amount charged by the service provider from the client. The rate of service tax was increased from 5 percent since September 10, 2004. With the increase in tax rate and base of service tax, the collections from the service tax have shown a steady rise from Rs. 410 crore in 1994-95 to Rs. 8,300 crore in 2003-04; however, they accounted for only 4.4 percent of the total tax receipts of the Centre (0.3 percent of GDP) in 2003-04.
Service tax is envisaged as the tax of the future. The inclusion of all value added services in the tax net would yield a larger amount of revenue and make the existing tax structure more elastic. Once the service sector is adequately covered under tax net, the buoyant services sector will enable the reversal of declining trend in tax buoyancy. Besides raising the revenue buoyancy, appropriate taxation of services sector would also provide equity, efficiency and consistency in the tax administration as well as neutrality for various economic activities. Integration of services sector to the tax net would be the prelude to the introduction of a full-fledged VAT system.

 

1). What according to the passage, was the impact of exclusion of service tax till the first half of the last decade of the past century?
(a) There was no impact as there was no service tax.
(b) There was a steady deterioration in the GDP.
(c) Tax-GDP ratio has steadily and gradually aggravated.
(d) Service sector used to flourish exorbitantly.
(e) None of these

 

2). The origin of service tax is attributed to __________
(a) increase in Gross Domestic Product (GDP)                     

(b) existence of service sector

(c) tax of the future                                                                    

(d) metamorphosis of our country’s economy

(e) enormous growth potential of industrial sector
 

3). Which of the following is MOST likely to provide neutrality to various economic activities?
(a) Increase in revenue buoyancy                                           

(b) Fairness in tax administration

(c) Equity and efficiency in various activities.       

(d) Consistency in tax structure and revenue buoyancy

(e) None of these
 

4). What is the probable impact of bringing all value added services under the tax net?
(A) It will yield a larger revenue.
(B) It will provide flexibility to the present tax structure.
(C) It will progressively decrease tax buoyancy.

(a) A and C only

(b) B and C only   

(c) A and B only

(d) All the three

(e) None of these

 

5). When the author mentions that the service taxes constitute 0.3 percent of GDP, he implies that __________
(a) it is a substantially high amount         

(b) the service taxes show a very progressive trend

(c) it is a very small amount                       

(d) there is no scope for further increase

(e) None of these
 

6). Levying service tax is most likely to achieve which of the following?
(A) Check on reducing Tax-GDP ratio
(B) Enhancement in allocative efficiency
(C) Promoting equality

 

 

(a) A and B only

(b) B and C only

(c) A and C only

(d) All the three

(e) None of these

 

 

7). Which of the following statements is/are definitely true in the context of the passage?
(A) The orbit of service tax has been increased to encompass more and more services.
(B) Despite increasing the coverage of service tax, the actual tax collection is deteriorating significantly.
(C) Despite widening tax net to bring more and more services under it the combined Tax-GDP ratio of Centre and States was reduced during 1986-2000.

 

(a) A and B only

(b) A and C only

(c) B and C only 

(d) All the three

(e) None of these
 

 

 

8). Which of the following factors helps service tax improve fairness across different economic strata of society?
(a) Taxable services are mostly those that are utilised by the rich
(b) Untaxed service traders are prevented from claiming value added tax
(c) Encouragement to in-house services is effected
(d) It improves revenue system
(e) None of these

 

9). According to the author, the service tax is the tax of the future because __________
(a) it will be levied in near future
(b) its implementation will be effected in the next decade
(c) its significant impact will be visible at a later period
(d) the future of the nation is largely dependent on it
(e) None of these

 

10). Which of the following is likely to happen if services are NOT brought under the tax net?
(A) Misrepresentation of customers’ choices
(B) Stimulating enhancement in spending on services at the cost of goods
(C) Inability of tax payers to reclaim their taxes already paid by them

 

 

(a) A and B only

(b) B and C only  

 (c) A and C only

(d) All the three

(e) None of these

 

11). The author of the passage seems to be having __________
(a) an antagonistic attitude about levying service tax
(b) a favourable attitude towards levying service tax
(c) a sympathetic and lenient view regarding untaxed service traders
(d) a distorted view about equity
(e) a soft corner for the tax payers brought under service tax net

Directions (12-13): Choose the word/group of words which is most nearly the SAME in meaning as the word given in bold as given in the passage.

 

 

12). NET
(a) Actual amount                          

(b) Amount after tax                     

(c) Governance 

(d) Coverage     

(e) Mesh
 

13). ENVISAGE
(a) Implement                  

(b) Visualize                                     

(c) Endure                          

(d) Encompass  

(e) Expect


 

 

Directions (14-15): Choose the word/group of words which is most OPPOSITE in meaning of the word given in bold as given in the passage.
 

 

14). PROGRESSIVELY
(a) Gradually      

(b) Abruptly                       

(c) Occasionally

(d) Narrowly                     

(e) Ineffectively

 

15). ELASTIC
(a) Flexible         

(b) Unreliable                   

(c) Faulty                           

(d)Untenable                    

(e) Rigid

 

 

 

 

(RC- 7) Directions (1-15): Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words/phrases have been printed in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.

                                For a business, still in a burgeoning state of development the performance of the gem and jewelry sector in exports is gratifying. On top of an over 50 percent growth during 2004-05, these exports are poised to grow at a similar rate during the current year, if the trend in the first half of the year is an indication. Data released by the Gems and Jewelry Export Promotion Council show that Gems exports at Rs.2,363 crores during April-September 2005 were 51 percent higher than during the corresponding period of 2004. Since there is a greater acceleration in the tempo of exports in the second half of the year, it appears that the target of gems and jewelry exports, pegged at Rs.5,000 crores are well within reach. Even more heartening is the fact that the export flow has been broad based, though the pace has been set by better showing in both jewelry and gem exports. This successful incursion is the outcome of a conscious strategy to build export infrastructure which includes the setting up of Gems and Jewelry Export Zones, technology missions and a liberal policy under which virtually the entire industry is thrown open to foreign direct investment. Some incentives like access to domestic market for these export-oriented units, based on the net value addition, also have helped the export drive. Besides, the industry had made helped the export drive. Besides, the industry had made efforts to capture new markets, laid stress on quality of the product and became alive to customer needs.

However, in the case of jewelry exports, the actual performance is behind the potential. With its endowment in terms of jewelry designers, low costs and high productivity, India can emerge as a major force in global jewelry exports by emphasizing on customizing jewelry rather than relying on standard products. At the same time, gems exports should not suffer by default. The recent data given lie to the claim that we have a leeway in jewelry designing. Over a period, this success on global marketing of our gems should facilitate system integration, and to exports of value-added gems with jewelry. As of now, what is significant is that we have carved a small niche in the global market in an industry that is the cutting edge of designing.

 

1). Which of the following are responsible for substantial growth in exports in gems and jewelry sector?

(A) Conscious strategy to build export infrastructure

(B) Liberal policy

(C) Government subsidy

 

(a) All (A), (B) and (C)                    

(b) Only (B) and (C)                        

(c) Only (A) and (C)         

(d) Only (A) and (B)                        

(e) None of these

 

 

 

2). Setting up of gems and jewelry exports zones has resulted into which of the following?

(a)Production of gems has increased

(b) Increase in gems exports

(c) Increase in jewelry exports

(d) Abundance of gems and jewelry in the domestic market

(e) None of these

 

3). Which of the following words has the SAME meaning as the word ‘heartening’ as used in the passage?

 

(a) Saddening    

(b) Encouraging

(c) Illuminating  

(d) Satisfying                    

(e) Worsening

 

 

4). Which of the following have helped in the growth of exports in gem and jewelry sector?

(A)Value addition                                         

(B) Quality control         

(C) Customer friendly                                  

(D) Access to domestic market

 

(a) All (A), (B), (C) and (D)             

(b) Only (A), (B) and (C) 

(c) Only (B), (C) and (D)

(d) Only (A), (C) and (D)                

(e) None of these

 

 

 

 

5). Which of the following statements is true in the context of the passage?

(a) The growth in exports in gems and jewelry sector is expected to be 100 percent during 2005-2006 to that of 2004-05.

(b) The growth in exports in gems and jewelry sector in 2005-2006 is expected to be more than that in 2004-05.

(c)The growth in exports in gems and jewelry sector is expected to be 50 percent in 2005-2006.

(d) The growth in exports in gems and jewelry sector is expected to be 25 percent in 2005-2006.

(e) None of these

 

6). Which of the following factors have not helped in the export promotion?

(A) Building an infrastructure for export              

(B) Encouraging foreign direct investment

 

(a) Only (A)        

(b) Only (B)        

(c) Either (A) or (B)          

(d) Both (A) and (B)        

(e) None of these

 

 

 

7). How much export was realized in the first half of the year 2005-2006?

(a) Less than half the targeted amount.

(b) More than half the targeted amount.

(c) Almost half of the amount projected for the purpose.

(d) The exact amount is not mentioned.

(e) None of these

 

8). Which of the following words/group of words has the SAME meaning as the word ‘customizing’ as used in the passage?

 

(a) Need-based 

(b) Supportive                  

(c) Appropriate  

(d) Quality          

(e) Traditional

 

 

9). Which of the following words has the SAME meanings as the word ‘alive’ as used in the passage?

 

(a) Awake                          

(b) Open                            

(c) Conducive                   

(d) Active            

(e) Brisk

 

 

 

10). Which of the following statements is not true according to the passage?

(a) India’s performance in exports of jewelry is better than that of gems.

(b) India’s performance in exports of gems is better than that of jewelry.

(c) India’s performance in value added exports has grown in the recent past.

(d) India has made considerable effort in exporting value added products in the international market.

(e) Performance in global marketing has helped in developing an edge in designing.

11). What according to the passage, is the basis for the expectation of the exports in Gem and jewelry sector reaching the targeted amount?

(a) Growth in exports in the earlier year.                             

(b) Domestic demand in the sector.

(c) India’s performance in jewelry designing.       

(d)Trend observed during the first half of the year.

(e) None of these

 

Directions (12-13): Choose the word which is most similar in meaning to the word printed in bold used in the passage.

 

12). Emerge

(a) Drawn                          

(b) Evolve                          

(c) Shine                             

(d) Grow             

(e) Submerge

 

13). Conscious

(a) Desirable      

(b) Deliberate                   

(c) Planned                        

(d) Unconscious

(e) Wanted

 

 

Directions (14-15): Choose the word which is most opposite in meaning of the word printed in bold as used in the passage.

 

14). Virtually

(a) Artificially     

(b) Lately                           

(c) Really                           

(d) Imaginary         

(e) Realistically

 

15). Burgeoning

(a) Emerging      

(b) Established  

(c) Dying                            

(d) Sneaking                      

(e) Middle

 

 

 

 

(RC- 8) Directions (1-4): Each passage is followed by question based on its content. After reading passage, choose the best answer to each question. Answer all questions following a passage on the basic of what is stated or implied in that passage.

                        A Marxist sociologist has argued that racism stems from the class struggle that is unique to the capitalist system – that racial prejudice is generated by capitalists as a means of controlling workers. His thesis works relatively well when applied to discrimination against Blacks in the United States, but his definition of racial prejudice as “radically-based negative prejudgments against a group generally accepted as a race in any given region of ethnic competition,” can be interpreted as also including hostility towards such ethnic groups as the Chinese in California and the Jews in medieval Europe. However, since prejudice against these latter peoples was not inspired by capitalists, he has no reason that such antagonisms were not really based on race. He disposes thusly (albeit unconvincingly) of both the intolerance faced by Jews before the rise of capitalism and the early twentieth-century discrimination against Oriental people in California, which, inconveniently, was instigated by workers.

 

1). The passage supplies information that would answer which of the following questions?

(a) What accounts for the prejudice against the Jews in medieval Europe?

(b) What conditions caused in discrimination against Oriental people in California in the early twentieth-century?

(c) Which groups are not in ethnic competition with each other in the United States?

(d) What explanation did the Marxist sociologist give for the existence of racial prejudice?

(e) who could have supplied the information.

 

 

2). The author considers the Marxist sociologist’s thesis about the origins of racial prejudice to be:

 

(a) Unoriginal    

(b) Unpersuasive             

(c) Offensive      

(d) Obscure        

(e) aboriginal

 

3). In can be inferred from the passage that the Marxist sociologist would argue that in a non capitalist society racial prejudice would be:

(a) Pervasive      

(b) Tolerated                    

(c) Nonexistent 

(d) Forbidden                   

(e) impunity

 

 

4). According to the passage, the Marxist sociologist’s chain of reasoning him to assert that prejudice toward Oriental people in California was

 

(a) non-racial in character.                                                                      

(b) similar in origin to prejudice against the Jews.

(c) understood by Oriental people as ethnic competition.

(d) provoked by workers.

(e) estimated by workers

 

 

(RC-9) Directions (1-11): Each passage is followed by question based on its content. After reading passage, choose the best answer to each question. Answer all questions following a passage on the basic of what is stated or implied in that passage.

                                 By 1950, the results of attempts relate brain processes to mental experience appeared rather discouraging. Such variations in size, shape, chemistry, conduction speed, excitation threshold, and the like as had been demonstrated in nerve cells remained negligible in significance for any possible correlation with the manifold dimensions of mental experience. Near the turn of the century, it had been suggested by Hering that different modes of sensation, such as pain, taste, and colour, might be correlated with the discharge of specific kinds of nervous energy. However, subsequently developed methods of recording and analyzing nerve potentials failed to reveal any such qualitative diversity. It was possible to demonstrate by other methods refined structural differences among neuron types; however, proof was lacking that the quality of the impulse or its conduction was influenced by these differences, which seemed instead to influence the developmental patterning of the neural circuits.

Although qualitative variance among nerve energies was never rigidly disproved, the doctrine was generally abandoned in favour of the opposing view, namely, that nerve impulses are essentially homogeneous in quality and are transmitted as “common currency” throughout the nervous system. According to this, it is not the quality of the sensory nerve impulses that determines the diverse conscious sensations they produce, but rather the different areas of the brain into which they discharge, and there is some evidence for this view. In one experiment, when an electric stimulus was applied to a given sensory field of the cerebral cortex of a conscious human subject, it produced a sensation of the appropriate modality for that particular locus, that is, a visual sensation from the auditory cortex, and so on. Other experiments revealed slight variations in the size, number, arrangement, and interconnection of the nerve cells, but as far as psycho neural correlations were concerned, the obvious similarities of these sensory fields to each other seemed much more remarkable than any of the minute differences.

However, cortical locus, in itself, turned out to have little explanatory value. Studies showed that sensations as diverse as those of red, black, green, and white, or touch, cold, warmth, movement, pain, posture, and pressure apparently may arise through activation of the same cortical areas. What seemed to remain was some kind of differential patterning effects in the brain excitation: it is the difference in the central distribution of impulses that counts. In short, brain theory suggested a correlation between mental experience and the activity of relatively homogeneous nerve-cell units conducting essentially homogeneous impulses through homogeneous cerebral tissue. To match the multiple dimensions of mental experience, psychologists could only point to a limitless variation in the spatio-temporal patterning of nerve impulses.

 

1). The author suggests that, by 1950, attempts to correlate mental experience with brain processes would probably have been viewed with:

 

(a) Indignation  

(b) Impatience                 

(c) Pessimism                    

(d) Defiance       

(e) definite

 

 

 

2). The author mentions “common currency” primarily in order to emphasize the

(a) lack of differentiation among nerve impulses in human beings.

(b) similarities of the sensations that all human beings experience.

(c) similarities in the views of scientists who have studied the human nervous system.

(d) continuous passage of nerve impulses through nervous system.

(e) Which groups are not in ethnic competition with each other in the United States?

 

3). The description of an experiment in which electric stimuli were applied to different sensory field of the cerebral cortex tends to support the theory that

(a) the stimuli presence of different cortical areas cannot account for the diversity of mental experience.

(b) variation in spatio-temporal patterning of nerve impulses correlates with variation in subjective experience.

(c) nerve impulse are essentially homogeneous and are relatively unaffected as they travel through the nervous system.

(d) the mental experiences produced by sensory nerve impulses are determined by the cortical area activated.

(e) manner in which nerve impulse are conducted.

 

4). According to the passage, some evidences exist that the area of the cortex activated by a sensory stimulus determines which of the following?

(A)The nature of the nerve impulse.

(B) The modality of the sensory experience.

(C) Qualitative differences within a modality.

 

(a) (B) only                        

(b) (C) only         

(c) (A) and (B) only          

(d) (B) and (C) only         

(e) none of these.

 

 

 

5). The passage can most accurately be described as a discussion concerning historical views of the

(a) anatomy of the brain.                                                          

(b) physiological correlates of mental experience.

(c) manner in which nerve impulse are conducted. 

(d) mechanics of sense perception.

(e) similar in origin to prejudice against the Jews.

 

6). Which of the following best summarizes the author’s opinion of the suggestion that different areas of the brain determine perceptions produced by sensory nerve impulses?

a) It is a plausible explanation, but it has not been completely proved.

b) It is the best explanation of brain processes currently available.

c) It is disproved by the fact that the various areas of the brain are psychologically very similar.

d) There is some evidence to support it, but it fails to explain the diversity of mental experience.

e) understood by Oriental people as ethnic competition.

 

Directions (7-10): Improve the bold part in each of the following sentences, if needed.

7). We have abundant natural resources and all the manpower we need.

(a) those we need           

(b) that needs   

(c) we needed   

(d) which is in our need 

(e) No correction required

 

8). India is so poor that it can’t afford lose Mondays on account of strikes.

(a) can’t be affording lose                          

(b) could not afford for lose        

(c) can’t afford to lose   

(d) could afford to lost                 

(e) No correction required

 

9). The leader repeatedly mentioned that his mission was not by merely to achieve freedom.

(a) to more achieving                    

(b) merely to achieve                    

(c) for merely to achieve

(d) in order for achieving                            

(e) No correction required

10). The advocate declared in the court that his client has prepared to surrender.

(a) was prepared to                       

(b) has been preparing to            

(c) was prepared at        

(d) has prepared for

(e) No corrections required

 

11) The purchase made by him brought with him a number of prizes.

(a) brings towards him                  

(b) brought him               

(c) brought up to him     

(d) brought with himself                             

(e) No correction required

 

 

(RC-10) Directions (1-9): Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words are given in bold in the passage to help you locate them while answering some of the question

                       Though the Cold War has ended, selective tactics are still continuing for ensuring the military and economic dominance of developed countries. Various types of technology denial regimes are still being enforced which are now being mainly targeted against developing countries like India.

Today, we in India encounter twin problems. On one side there is a large scale strengthening of our neighbours through supply of arms and clandestine support to their nuclear and missile programmes and on the other side all efforts are being made to weaken our indigenous technology growth through control regimes and dumping of low-tech systems, accompanied with high commercial pitch in critical areas. Growth of indigenous technology and self-reliance are the only answer to the problem.

Thus in the environment around India, the number of missiles and nuclear powers are continuously increasing and destructive weapons continue to pile up around us, in spite of arms reduction treaties.

To understand the implications of various types of warfare that may affect us, we need to take a quick look at the evolution of war weaponry and the types of warfare. I am highlighting this point for the reason that in less than a century we could see change in the nature of warfare and its effects on society.

In early years of human history it was mostly direct human warfare. During the twentieth century up to about 1990, the warfare was weapon driven. The weapons used were guns, tanks, aircraft, ships, submarines and the nuclear weapons deployed on land/sea/air and also reconnaissance spacecraft. Proliferation of conventional nuclear and biological weapons was at a peak owing to the competition between the superpowers.

The next phase, in a new form, has just started from 1990 onwards. The world has graduated into economic warfare. The means used is control of market forces through high technology. The participating nations, apart from the USA, are Japan, the UK, France, Germany, certain South-East Asia countries and a few others. The driving force is the generation of wealth with certain types of economic doctrine.

The urgent issue we need to address collectively as a nation is, how do we handle the tactics of economic and military dominance in this new form coming from the backdoor? Today technology is the main driver of economic development at the national level. Therefore, we have to develop indigenous technologies to enhance our competitive edge and to generate national wealth in all segments of economy. Therefore, the need of the hour is arm India with technology.

 

1) . Why do certain countries use selective tactics against developing countries?

(a) To help developing countries gain military and economic independence

(b) To help developing countries govern themselves and be economically independent

(c) To ally with developing countries to dominate over other developed countries

(d) To curtail their domination over developing countries

(e) None of these

 

2). Which are the issues of great concern that India is facing at present, according to the author of the passage?

(A) The supply of high-tech weaponry by other countries to India’s neighbours who are likely to use the same against India.

(B) Other countries secretly helping India’s neighbours to strengthen their nuclear might.

(C) Obstruction of India’s genuine efforts to develop its own nuclear technology.

 

(a) (A) & (B) only                                           

(b) (B) & (C) only                            

(c) (A) & (C) only              

(d) All (A), (B) & (C)                        

(e) None of these

 

 

3). Enforcement of technology denial regimes by developed countries implies which of the following?

(a) Dominance of developing countries over developed ones

(b) Exploitation of developing nations by the mightier ones

(c) Targeting of developed countries by developing countries

(d) Sympathizing with underprivileged countries

(e) None of these

 

4). The striking difference in warfare before and after 1990 was the shift from

(a) guns, tanks, etc. to nuclear weapons  

(b) ships and submarines to spacecrafts

(c) weaponry to economic warfare            

(d) economic forces to high technology driven warfare

(e) None of these

 

5). Why according to the author, is it necessary to examine how weaponry and warfare have evolved?

(A) To understand their implications for us.

(B) To learn the rapid changes that have taken place in weaponry and warfare.

(C) To master them and enable us to attack our enemies.

 

(a) All (A), (B) and (C)                    

(b) (A) & (B) only                            

(c) (A) & (C) only              

(d) (B) & (C) only                                           

(e) None of these

 

 

 

6). According to the author, the most effective way to counter our major problems is to

(A) develop indigenous technologies.

(B) complete with other countries in their warring tactics.

(C) generate national wealth in all segments of economy.

 

(a) All (A), (B) & (C)                        

(b) (A) & (B) only                            

(c) (B) & (C) only              

(d) (A) & (C) only                                           

(e) None of these

 

 

 

7). What, according to the author, is the solution to our problems in the international field?

(A) Importing up-to-date technology and nuclear equipments from developed countries.

(B) Developing our own in-house technology.

(C) Eliminating dependence on developed countries.

 

(a) (A) & (B) only                                           

(b) (A) & (C) only                            

(c) (B) & (C) only              

(d) All (A), (B) & (C)                        

(e) None of these

 

 

8). What is the general outcome of arms reduction treaties as a whole according to the author of the passage?

(a) They seem to have become totally defunct

(b) They have achieved the desired outcome in most cases

(c) They have resulted in curbing the trade of destructive weapons

(d) Piling up of weapons has significantly reduced due to such treaties

(e) None of these

 

9). What, according to the author, is the immediate problem to be collectively resolved by our country?

(a) To counter the dominance of developed countries through money and muscle power

(b) To eradicate poverty and become economically self reliant

(c) To control the exorbitant rate of population growth

(d) To develop indigenous technology to manufacture mightier weapons

(e) None of these

 

Directions (10-12): Choose the word which is most nearly the same in meaning as the word printed in bold as given in the passage.

 

 

10). Reconnaissance

(a) Investigation    &n