Shadow Banking: All You Need to know

Shadow Banking: All You Need to know

2089   05-May-2018, Sat

Introduction to Shadow Banking:

Shadow banking is a new word hardly heard to common people. Shadow banking mostly deals with the big lenders and borrowers. Shadow banking is one type of mediate which helps to make easy procedure between the lenders and borrowers. Shadow banking has grown in importance in the last decade or so and was one of the primary factors in the sub-prime mortgage crisis of 2007-2008 and the global recession that followed it.



The term SHADOW BANKING first came into an existence in 2007. Economist Paul McCulley used it first time at FEDERAL RESERVE BANK OF KANSAS CITY’S ECONOMIC SUMMIT.



a) The term shadow banking is used while a non-banking financial intermediates make provision for the commercial banks.

b) Shadow banking is a comprehensive term to do financial activities among the non-banking financial institutions.

c) In simple language shadow banking is a financial intermediaries involved to facilitate credit in the financial system.

d) They generally carry out traditional banking functions, but do so outside the traditional system of regulated depository institutions.


Size of Shadow Banks

According to a report by the Financial Stability Board, USA and the Eurozone alone account for one-third of the global shadow banking assets, which stood at $75 trillion in 2013. This 75 trillion accounts for about 25% of the total financial assets. The three jurisdictions accounting for most of the shadow banking activities are:-

i) Eurozone area

ii) UK

iii) China

In India, Russia, Argentina, Turkey, Indonesia, and Saudi Arabia the amount of non-bank financial activity remained below 20% of GDP at the end of 2012. However, the sector is growing rapidly.


Conditions conducive to Shadow Banking

According to a report by the Financial Stability Board, the prevalence of the following conditions spur the growth of institutions engaging in shadow banking activities:-

i) Strict banking rules combined with low real interest rates and yield rates

ii) Existence of a large pool of investors searching for higher returns.

iii) Large demand for assets from institutions


Differences between Shadow Banks and Banks

a) Shadow banks cannot create money unlike commercial banks, which by virtue of being depository institutions can do so

b) Banks are comprehensively and tightly regulated, whereas shadow banks lacks regulatory oversight and transparency with respect to its business operations.

c) Commercial banks raise funds through mobilization of public deposits to a large extent. Shadow banks, on the other hand, raise funds mostly through market-based instruments such as commercial paper, debentures, or other such structured credit instruments.

d) While the liabilities of the shadow banks are uninsured, commercial banks’ deposits enjoy Government guarantee to a limited extent generally.

e) During times of distress, banks have access to multiple recourses set up by the body responsible for regulatory oversight such as direct access to central bank liquidity etc. However, shadow banks have no such options, and will have to fend for themselves

There is a stark differences in the way the shadow banks operate as compared to other traditional banks. However, in certain instances there is only a thin line separating the two.


Regulation of Shadow Bank Activities

Shadow Banking institutions exploit the prevalent economic system’s inefficiencies through financial innovations. However, the sub-prime crisis exposed the extent of damage that can be caused by unregulated banking activities. The crisis and the recession that followed it provoked a call for increased regulation of the markets globally. USA passed the Dodd-Frank Act in 2010 to strengthen the arms of the Federal Reserve to regulate all institutions of systemic importance. The EU (European Union) has also put in place some measures regulating securitization and credit rating agencies. Also, the Financial Security Board, at the specific request of G-20 countries, has been working towards ‘strengthening the oversight and regulation of the shadow banking system so that the risks emanating from them may be mitigated.’ India is also working towards improving the regulatory framework so as to curb the shadow banking activities that risk financial stability.


Dangers of Shadow Banking

Financial Stability and Systemic Risk Concerns

Shadow Banking acts as a means to escape regulatory oversight. In many instances, banks themselves composed part of the shadow banking chain by floating a specialized subsidiary to carry out shadow banking activities. Also, banks may invest in financial products issued by other shadow banking entities. And since shadow bank entities have no access to recourse to central bank funding or any other safety nets, they remain vulnerable to shocks. Such inter-linkages and the huge size of shadow bank activities give rise to systemic risk concern, as a seemingly minor issue affecting one entity may amplify and send shocks through the system. And the capacity of shadow banks to precipitate systemic crisis as manifested in the recent global financial crisis is still fresh in the minds of the people.


Regulatory arbitrage spread across geographical jurisdictions

Shadow banking activities are spread across border and different legal and regulatory frameworks across geographical jurisdictions pose a handicap in curbing them. For instance, high taxation in some countries may lead to adoption of tax avoidance strategies by financial firms. Tax haven countries keep taxes low to attract foreign capital and create jobs. So, companies in high taxation countries restructure their financial activity by shifting some high tax activities to low tax countries. This, at times, has an adverse effect on financial stability, especially when the whole global economy is highly integrated and interconnected.


Challenges in the conduct of Monetary Policy

‘Opaqueness of structure, size, operations and inter-linkages of shadow banks with commercial banks and other arms of the financial sector distorts the information content of monetary policy indicators and undermines the conduct of monetary policy.’ Central Banks and other regulatory agencies depend on domestic indicators while determining monetary policy, which is modified at regular intervals. Lack of clarity as to the activities conducted in the financial system prohibits it from formulating a coherent policy that tackles all the urgent issues. Since these entities broadly remain outside the regulatory purview, a clear picture of the extent of their activities and involvement in the financial system is lacking. Therefore, these non-bank financial intermediaries act as an impediment to the successful implementation of monetary policy as they remain immune to direct central bank control. A Study has found that ‘growing level of intermediation activities of the non-bank financial intermediaries causes a shift in deposits from banks to non-banks in South-East Asian Countries.


Procyclicity and amplification of business cycles

Shadow banking activities have a tendency to act pro-cyclically. Pro-cyclicity means that that there is a positive correlation between the activity in question and the overall condition of the economy. This means that when there is an economic boom, the activities of shadow banks are on the rise and when there is a downturn, they shrink their activities. This amplifies financial and economic cycles. ‘Their leverage would rise during booms as they face little problem in arranging funds as assets price rise and margins on secured lending remain low. On the contrary, during the downturn phase as the funding becomes difficult and asset prices fall, the margins on secured loan become tighter, shadow banks get compelled to undertake deleveraging.’ Also, pro-cyclicality of shadow banks worsen due to their inter-connectedness with banks. According to the Financial Stability Board, inter-connectedness of the shadow banks with the banks heighten the risks of asset price bubbles like the one that occurred before 2008.


Shadow Banking in the Indian context

In the Indian financial arena, shadow banks are known as Non-Banking Finance Companies (NBFCs). However, NBFCs in India have been regulated by the RBI (Reserve Bank of India) since 1963.

a) Regulation of NBFCs in India began in the wake of failure of several banks in the late 1950s and early 1960s where a large number of ordinary depositors lost money. The Deposit Insurance Corporation was formed by RBI to provide the necessary safety net for the bank depositors.

b) Later in 1996, the regulatory structure over the NBFCs was further tightened with rigorous registration requirements, enhanced reporting and supervision.

c) RBI also prohibited NBFCs from raising deposits from the public. However, this led the NBFCs to source their funding from the banking system, thereby raising systemic risk issues. So, the RBI brought asset side prudential regulations onto the NBFCs.



Though the disadvantages and risks of shadow banks have been highlighted here, it is undeniable that shadow banks, including NBFCs and other service a need of the population that is left unaddressed by the mainstream banks. Shadow banks subserve the economy by playing a complimentary and supplementary role to mainstream banks and also aid in furthering financial inclusion, which is an important issue for India. Large banks due to their reluctance to enter into less profitable areas, have left 41% of Indian households without bank accounts, thus making them an easy target for chit funds. Hence, instead of aiming to completely abolish shadow banking, the Government must increase regulatory oversight and keep the law/rules updated to dealing with the changing economic environment. While enabling prudential growth of the sector, financial stability must be maintained and consumers’ and depositors’ interests must be protected.



a) It don’t take deposits like commercial banking

b) It is also called as the unregularly activities done by regular institutions.

c) It works in lesser transparency, rules and regulations as compared to commercial banking.

d) Shadow banks make money by market instruments like debentures, commercial paper.

e) Shadow bank’s liability is not insured. It deals with the high level of risk.

f) Shadow banking make most of their money by being a mediate between the borrowers and lenders.

g) They earn revenue the fees charges for service and interest rates spreads.

h) No need to follow regulations like initial capital requirements.

i) It has come under the increased scrutiny since 2008. This system is prominent worldwide.

j) It is a complex system of investments like Asset-backed securities, derivatives, Credit default swaps and repurchase agreements.

Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana

Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana

21787   02-Apr-2019, Tue

Under PMKVY (2015-16)

  1. 13,000 training centers opened across India Training in 375 trades.
  2. 19.85 Lakh youth trained part of PMKVY (2015-2016) (updated)

Placement was not a feature of PMKVY 1, neither was it tracked. The number mentioned is record of voluntary information shared by TPs and thus shouldn’t be counted as an achievement.

Under PMKVY -2 (2016-20)

  1. More than 5,700 training centres opened across India
  2. More than 16 lakh candidates trained
  3. Model training centres known as Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Kendras (PMKK) are being opened in every district across India 
  4. Physical target of 20.5 lakh approved for 35 states/UT costing to INR 3000 crore till 2020
  5. 6.01 lakh training to be implemented through state/UTs by March’18
  6. Additional target of 20 lakh allocated for enrolment and training by training providers
  7. Women constitute approx. 50% of all enrolled candidates under PMKVY



6868   02-Apr-2019, Tue

Startup India Movement launched on 16th January 2016 for promotion of Entrepreneurship among youth.

  1. Action plan unveiled for encouraging startups.
  2. Tax relief for three consecutive years out of a block of seven year for startups.
  3. Start-up Fund of Rs. 10,000 Crore to be released over two Finance Commission cycles, that is, by 2025.
  4. Startups are allowed to issue ESOPs to promoters working as employees

Startups approved

  1. 4536 Startup applications have been recognized as Startups by DIPP as on 12th October, 2017
  2. 74 Startups have been approved by IMB for availing tax benefit
  3. 450+ Startups have been mentored for incubation and funding support by Startup India Hub

Start-up India, a flagship initiative of the Government of India, intended to build a strong eco-system for nurturing innovation and Start-ups in the country that will drive sustainable economic growth and generate large scale employment opportunities.


In order to meet the objectives of the scheme, the corporation has taken following initiatives:

  1. Nurturing Creativity and Innovation by institutionalizing Meritorious Innovation Awards
  2. Transferred about 120 technologies to various entrepreneurs/ Start-ups, contributing significantly to Start up India
  3. NRDC is assisting DIPP in evaluating the innovation content in the start-up applications for recognizing start-ups and recommending the eligible start-ups for tax exemption and other benefits.
  4. Designated by DIPP as Government Facilitator for IP filings for Start-Ups
  5. Partnered with MoMSME-UNIDO (GCIP) for evaluating the award proposals for innovativeness
  6. Managing and Monitoring Indian Oil and GAIL Start-up Scheme
  7. NRDC organized a Contest for Demonstrating Innovative Prototypes for Start-Ups during the two-day NRDC annual conference on “Leveraging Innovation Ecosystem for Accelerating Start-ups”.

New Development Bank  (BRICS Bank )

New Development Bank  (BRICS Bank )

21259   15-Jul-2018, Sun

The New Development Bank BRICS (NDB BRICS), formerly referred to as the BRICS Development Bank, is multilateral development bank operated by the BRICS states (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) as an alternative to the existing US-dominated World Bank and International Monetary Fund. It has headquarters in Shanghai, China.
The Bank is set up to boost infrastructure funding in the emerging economies and offer them tailor-made services.

Making of BRICS Bank:

The BRICS countries in the 4th BRICS summit held in Delhi in 2012 came up with the idea of setting up the bank. It was then proposed by India.

Then at the 5th BRICS summit held in Durban, South Africa in 2013, all BRICS countries agreed to set up a Development bank.

Then at the 6th BRICS summit held in Fortaleza, Brazil, the BRICS countries signed the Agreement on the New Development Bank, which makes provisions for the legal basis of the bank.

The 7th BRICS summit in July 2015 held in Ufa, Russia marked the entry into force of the Agreement.

In July 2015, the bank was launched with K. V. Kamath from India as the first President of the Bank for the first five years.

Some facts about NDB BRICS:

The founding members of the Bank are the Federative Republic of Brazil, the Russian Federation, the Republic of India, the People’s Republic of China and the Republic of South Africa.

The membership shall be open to members of the United Nations, in accordance with the provisions of the Articles of Agreement of the New Development Bank.

The New Development Bank shall have an initial subscribed capital of US$ 50 billion and an initial authorized capital of US$ 100 billion.

Each BRICS member will contribute an equal share in establishing a startup capital.

All BRICS countries hold equal number of shares and have equal voting rights.

The Bank will have its Headquarters in Shanghai. The Bank may establish offices necessary for the performance of its functions. The first regional office shall be in Johannesburg.

The Bank shall have a Board of Governors, a Board of Directors, a President and Vice-Presidents. The President of the Bank shall be elected from one of the founding members on a rotational basis, and there shall be at least one Vice President from each of the other founding members.

List of national symbols and what do they represent

List of national symbols and what do they represent

9855   10-Jul-2018, Tue


National symbols of a country represent a host of objects that paint a unique identity about the country’s sensibilities. Representatives are chosen carefully and each depicts a certain virtue that is distinctive characteristic of the country. The rich heritage of India is a result of assimilation of cultural influences from its invaders through the generations. Ours is a multi-faceted culture and the various facets of our heritage require appropriate representation. India has many national symbols with which it identifies itself and takes pride in them. These symbols have been chosen from India’s unique flora and fauna, and its culture and civilization. In a nutshell, these symbols say a lot about India. These symbols are intrinsic to the Indian identity and heritage. Indians of all demographics backgrounds across the world are proud of these National Symbols as they instill a sense of pride and patriotism in every Indian’s heart.

Here is some more information about the national symbols of India:

National Emblem: The National Emblem of India is an adaptation of the Buddhist Lion capital of Ashoka at Sarnath, near Varanasi in Uttar Pradesh.

National Animal: The Tiger is the National Animal of India. It is the symbol of India’s wealth of wildlife. The magnificent tiger, Panthera tigris is a striped animal.

National Bird: The Peacock (Pavo Cristatus), is the National Bird of India. It is the symbol of qualities like beauty and grace.

National Flag: The National Flag is a horizontal tricolour of deep saffron (Kesari) at the top, white in the middle and the dark green at the bottom and a blue wheel (chakra) with 24 sticks at the centre.

National Fruit: The Mango (Mangiferra Indica) is the National Fruit. It has been cultivated in India since time immemorial.

National Tree: The National Tree of India is the Banyan (Ficus bengalensis) Tree. This huge tree towers over its neighbors and has the widest trunk.

National Sport: Sport Field Hockey, in which India has an impressive record with eight Olympic medals, is considered as the National Sport. However, Home Ministry has said that officially, no sport has been accorded, the status of national Sport.

National Anthem: Jana-Gana-Mana. . the song was composed originally in Bengali by Rabindranath Tagore, adopted in its Hindi version is our National Anthem.

National Song: The song Vande Mataram, composed in Sanskrit by Bankimchandra Chatterji, is our National song.

National Calender: The National Calender based on the Saka Era with Chaitra as its first month and a normal year of 365 days was adopted from 22nd March, 1957.

National Flower: Lotus, scientifically known as Nelumbo nucifera is the National Flower of India.

Other National Symbols of India

National Sentence: Satyamev Jayate
Father of the Nation: Mahatma Gandhi
National Foreign Policy: Non-Alignment
National Information Letter: White Letter
National Currency: Rupee

National Festivals:

Republic Day (26th January)
Independence Day (15th August)
Gandhi Jayanti (2nd October)
National River: Ganga
National Aquatic Animal: Dolphin (Platanista gangetica) 
National Heritage Animal: Elephant

Name of all the approved stock exchange in India

Name of all the approved stock exchange in India

3156   30-Jun-2018, Sat

Name of all the approved stock exchange in India is given below:-
1. U.P. Stock Exchange, Kanpur
2. Vadodara Stock Exchange, Vadodara 
3. Koyambtour Stock Exchange, Coimbatore 
4. Meerut Stock Exchange, Meerut
5. Mumbai Stock Exchange, Mumbai
6. Over the Counter Exchange of India, Mumbai
7. National Stock Exchange, Mumbai 
8. Ahmedabad Stock Exchange, Ahmedabad 
9. Bangalore Stock Exchange, Bangalore 
10. Bhubaneshwar Stock Exchange, Bhubaneshwar 
11. Calcutta Stock Exchange, Kolkata
12. Cochin Stock Exchange, Cochin 
13. Delhi Stock Exchange, Delhi 
14. Guwahati Stock Exchange, Guwahati 
15. Hyderabad Stock Exchange, Hyderabad 
16. Jaipur Stock Exchange, Jaipur 
17. Canara Stock Exchange, Mangalore 
18. Ludhiana Stock Exchange, Ludhiana 
19. Chennai Stock Exchange, Chennai 
20. M. P. Stock Exchange, Indore 
21. Magadh Stock Exchange, Patna
22. Pune Stock Exchange, Pune 
23. Capital Stock Exchange Kerala Ltd.,Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala

On July 9, 2007 SEBI has withdrawn its approval from Saurashtra Stock Exchange, Rajkot due to its passive working. Hence the number of approved stock exchanges have come down to 23.

Important Lines and Boundaries

2171   27-Jun-2018, Wed

Important Lines and Boundaries

Marginal Line : 320 km line of fortification on the Russia-Finland border

Line of Actual Control : India  & China on the Northern Border

Line of Control : India and Pakistan

Durand Line : Afghanistan and Pakistan

Radcliffe Line : India and Pakistan (its includes Bangladesh Line)

Blue Line : Isreal & Lebanon

Purple Line : Israel and Syria

Green Line : Israel and its neighbours (Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon and Syria)

Mason–Dixon line : Maryland and Pennsylvania/Delaware in Colonial America

Curzon Line : Poland & Russia

Military Demarcation Line (MDL) or Armistice Line : North Korea and South Korea

McMohan Line : India & China

Maginot Line : France & Germany

Mannar haime line : Russia & Finland

Order Neisse Line : Germany & Poland (aftermath of World War II)

Hindenburg Line : Poland & Germany (at the time of First World War)

 Sigfried Line East : France & Germany (at the time of second world war)

16 Parallel North : Angola and Namibia

17th Parallel Line : North & South Vietnam

20 Parallel North : Libya & Sudan

22 Parallel North : Egypt & Sudan

25 Parallel North : Mauritania & Mali

26 Parallel North : Western Sahara & Mauritania

31 Parallel North : Iraq & Iran

35 Parallel North : US it serves as border b/w Tennessee/Mississippi, Tennnessee/Alabama, Tennesse/Georgia, North Carolina/Georgia

36 Parallel North : In the US it Forms forms the southernmost boundary of the state of Missouri with the state of Arkansas

38 Parallel North Line : North  & South Korea

40 Parallel North : US it serves as border b/w Nebraska & Kansas

41 Parallel North : US it forms the border b/w wyoming/utah border, Wyoming/colorado, Nebraska/Colorado.

42 Parallel North : US it serves as border of new york & Pennsylvania Border

43 Parallel North : US it serves as border of b/w State Nebraska & state of south Dakota

45 Parallel North : US it forms the boundary b/w Montana & wyoming

49 Parallel North (Medicine Line) : USA & Canada

Highlight Of 15th Census Of India – 2011

Highlight Of 15th Census Of India – 2011

25651   24-Jun-2018, Sun

Census 2011

Census is nothing but a process of collecting, compiling, analyzing, evaluating, publishing and disseminating statistical data regarding the population. It covers demographic, social and economic data and are provided as of a particular date. Census is useful for formulation of development policies and plans and demarcating constituencies for elections. The Census of India has been conducted 15 times, As of 2011. It has been conducted every 10 years, beginning in 1871.

In Exam point of view, Questions related to Census is very common in all kinds of competitive exams. In every exam, we can expect a minimum of one or two questions from Census. Here is the simple and perfectly categorized 2011 Census of India.

  1. Census 2011 were released in New Delhi on 31st March 2011 by Union Home Secretary GK Pillai and RGI C Chandramouli.
  2. Census 2011 was the 15th census of india & 7th census after Independece
  3. The motto of census 2011 was “Our Census, Our future”.
  4. Total estimated cost of the Census was INR2200 crore (US$350 million).
  5. First census in 1872.
  6. Present Registrar General & Census Commissioner – C.Chandra Mouli
  7. Total Population – 1,210,569,573 (1.21 Billion)
  8. India in 2nd rank in population with 17.64%. decadal growth & China is 1st rank with decadal growth 19% (over 1.35 billion)
  9. World Population is 7 Billions
  10. Increase in population during 2001 – 2011 is 181 Million

Population – 1210.19 million [Males – 623.7 million (51.54%) Females – 586.46 million (48.46%)]

            Top Populous of the Country
1 Uttar Pradesh 19,98,12,341
2 Maharashtra 11,23,74,333
3 Bihar 10,40,99,452
4 West Bengal 9,12,76,115
5 Andhra Pradesh 8,45,80,777
           Least Populous of the Country
1 Lakshadweep 64,473
2 Daman and Diu 2,43,247
3 Dadra and Nagar Haveli 3,43,709
4 Andaman and Nicobar Islands 3,80,581
5 Sikkim 6,10,577

Population Highlight

Highest Populous UT Delhi
Least Populous UT Lakshadweep
Highest Populous state Uttar Pradesh
Least populous state Sikkim
Highest urban Population in india (state& UT) Maharashtra – 4,11,00,980
Lowest urban Population in india (state& UT) Lakshadweep – 26,967
Highest Rular Population in india (state& UT) Uttar Pradesh – 13,16,58,339
Lowest Rular Population in india (state& UT) Lakshadweep – 33,683

Sex Ratio (Females per 1000 Males)

Sex ratio in India 943
Highest sex ratio in state Kerala (1084)
Lowest sex ratio in state Haryana (879)
Highest sex ratio in UT Pondicherry (1037)
Lowest sex ratio in UT Daman and Diu (618)
Child (0-6 years) sex ratio 914
Highest child (0-6) sex ratio in state Mizoram (971)
Lowest child (0-6) sex ratio in state Haryana (830)

Literacy Rate in India

Total Person Literacy Rate 74%
Males 82.14%
Females 65.46%
Highest Literacy Rate in State Kerala (94%)
Lowest Literacy Rate in State Bihar (61.8%)
Hightest Literacy Rate in UT Lakshadweep (91%)
Lowest Literacy Rate in UT Dadra and Nagar Haveli (76.24%)

List Of Mergers & Acquisitions Of Bank In India

List Of Mergers & Acquisitions Of Bank In India

5546   24-Jun-2018, Sun

From 2010 to 2017
Name of the Banks Acquired  Name of the Banks got Merged Year of Merging happened
State Bank of India Bharatiya Mahila Bank (BMB) 2017
State Bank of India State Bank of Travancore (SBT) 2017
State Bank of India State Bank of Bikaner and Jaipur (SBBJ) 2017
State Bank of India State Bank of Hyderabad (SBH) 2017
State Bank of India State Bank of Mysore (SBM) 2017
State Bank of India State Bank of Patiala (SBP) 2017
Kotak Mahindra Bank ING Vyasa Bank 2014
ICICI Bank Bank of Rajasthan Ltd. 2010


From 2000 to 2009
Name of the Banks Acquired Name of the Banks got Merged Year of Merging happened
HDFC Bank Centurion Bank of Punjab 2008
ICICI Bank Ltd Sangli Bank 2007
Indian Overseas Bank Bharat Overseas Bank 2007
Centurion Bank of Punjab Lord Krishna Bank 2006
Federal Bank Ganesh Bank of Kurandwad 2006
 Nainital Bank Bank of Baroda 2006
IDBI Ltd United Western Bank 2006
IDBI Ltd IDBI Bank 2005
Bank of Punjab(POB) Centurion Bank 2005
Bank of Baroda South Gujarat Local Area Bank 2004
Oriental Bank of Commerce Global Trust Bank 2004
Punjab National Bank Nedungadi Bank Ltd. 2003
ICICI Bank ICICI Ltd. 2002
Bank of Baroda Benares State Bank Ltd. 2002
ICICI Bank Ltd Bank of Madura Ltd 2001
HDFC Bank Ltd. Times Bank Ltd. 2000


From 1990 to 1999
Name of the Banks Acquired Name of the Banks got Merged Year of Merging happened
Bank of Baroda Bareilly Corporation Bank Ltd. 1999
Union Bank of India Sikkim Bank Ltd. 1999
Oriental Bank of Commerce Bari Doab Bank Ltd. 1997
Oriental Bank of Commerce Punjab Co-operative Bank Ltd. 1996
State Bank of India Kashinath State Bank Ltd 1995
Bank of India Bank of Karad Ltd. 1994
Punjab National Bank New Bank of India 1993
 Bank Of India Parur Central Bank Ltd. 1990
Central Bank Of India  Purbanchal Bank Ltd. 1990
Indian Bank Bank of Thanjavur Ltd. 1990
Indian Overseas Bank Bank of Tamilnadu Ltd 1990


Before 1990
Name of the Banks Acquired Name of the Banks got Merged Year of Merging happened
Allahabad Bank United Industrial Bank Limited 1989
Bank of Baroda Traders Bank Ltd 1988
Punjab National Bank Hindustan Commercial Bank Ltd 1986
State Bank of India Bank of Cochin Ltd 1985
Canara Bank Lakshmi Commercial Bank Ltd 1985
Union Bank of India Miraj State Bank Ltd 1985
State Bank of India National Bank of Lahore Ltd 1970
State Bank of India Bank of Bihar Ltd 1969

List Important International Organizations And Their Headquarters

List Important International Organizations And Their Headquarters

12118   24-Jun-2018, Sun

  1. World Trade Organization (WTO) –
  • Headquarters – Geneva, Switzerland
  • Head – Roberto Azevedo
  • Founded on – 1 January, 1995
  1. World Health Organization (WHO) –
  • Headquarters – Geneva, Switzerland
  • Head – Dr Margaret Chan
  • Founded on – 7 April, 1948
  1. World Economic Forum (WEF) –
  • Headquarters – Geneva, Switzerland
  • Head – Klaus Schwab
  • Founded on – 1971
  1. International Labour Organisation (ILO) – 
  • Headquarters – Geneva, Switzerland
  • Head – Guy Ryder
  • Founded on – 1919
  1. United Nations Conference on Trade & Development (UNCTAD) –
  • Headquarters – Geneva, Switzerland
  • Head – MukhisaKituyi
  • Founded on – 1964
  1. World Meteorological Organisation (WMO) –
  • Headquarters – Geneva, Switzerland
  • Head – Michel Jarraud
  • Founded on – 1950
  1. International Monetary Fund (IMF) –
  • Headquarters – Washington DC, US
  • Head – Christine Lagarde
  • Founded on – 27 December, 1945
  1. The World Bank –
  • Headquarters – Washington DC, US
  • Founded on – July, 1944
  • President- Jim Young Kim
  1. United Nations Organization (UN) –
  • Headquarters – New York, US
  • Secretary general– Ban Ki-moon
  • Founded on – 1945
  1. United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) –
  • Headquarters – New York, US
  • Head – Anthony Lake
  • Founded on – December, 1946
  1. United Nations Education Scientific & Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) –
  • Headquarters – Paris, France
  • Head – Irina Bokova
  • Founded on – 16 November, 1945
  1. Organisation for Economic Cooperation & Development (OECD) –
  • Headquarters – Paris, France
  • Head – Jose Angel Gurria
  • Founded on – 30 September, 1961
  1. North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) –
  • Headquarters – Brussels, Belgium
  • Head – Philip M. Breedlove
  • Founded on – 4 April, 1949
  1. International Maritime Organisation (IMO) –
  • Headquarters – London, UK
  • Head – Ki Tack Lim
  • Founded on – 1959
  1. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) –
  • Headquarters – Vienna, Austria
  • Head – Yukiya Amano
  • Founded on – July 29, 1957
  1. Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) –
  • Headquarters – Vienna, Austria
  • Head – Diezani Alison-Madueke
  • Founded on – 1961-62
  1. International Olympic Committee (IOC) –
  • Headquarters – Lausanne, Switzerland 
  • Head – Thomas Bach
  • Founded on – 23 June, 1894
  1. Food & Agricultural Organisation (FAO) –
  • Headquarters – Rome, Italy
  • Head – Jose Graziano da Silva
  • Founded on -16 October, 1945

National Parks in India

The National Parks in India

8906   18-Jun-2018, Mon

National Parks in India




1. Bandhavgarh National Park

Madhya Pradesh

2. Kanha National Park

Madhya Pradesh

3. Panna National Park

Madhya Pradesh

4. Pench National Park

Madhya Pradesh

5. Thattekkad Bird Sanctuary


6. Idukki Wildlife Sanctuary


7. Eravikulam National Park


8. Kumarakom Bird Sanctuary


9. Periyar Wildlife Sanctuary


10. Sariska Wildlife Sanctuary


11. Bharatpur Bird Sanctuary


12. Keoladeo National Park


13. Nagarhole National Park


14. Ranthambore National Park


15. Sambhar Wildlife Sanctuary


16. Rajaji National Park


17. Corbett National Park


18. Manas National Park


19. Kaziranga National Park


20. Sanjay Gandhi Wildlife Sanctuary


21. Mahim Nature Park


22. Dachigam National Park


23. Hemis High Altitude Park


24. Chilka Lake Bird Sanctuary


25. Nandankanan Zoo


26. Similipal National Park


27. Bandipur National Park


28. Dandeli National Park


29. Dudhwa National Park

Uttar Pradesh

30. Gir National Park


31. Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary


32. Nagarjunasagar Wildlife Sanctuary


33. Renuka Wildlife Sanctuary

Himachal Pradesh

34. Sultanpur Bird Sanctuary

Haryana (Gurgoan)

35. Sunderbans Tiger Reserve

West Bengal


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