Inflation - Types, Causes, Measurement and Effects

Inflation - Types, Causes, Measurement and Effects

1905   30-Apr-2018, Mon

INTRODUCTION

What is inflation?

Inflation is a sustained rate at which the general level of prices of goods or services are increasing, and at the same time the rate of purchasing power of currencies are decreasing. Inflation is measured as an annual change in percentage.

 

Prices of things rise over time under conditions of inflation and as it does, every currency you own buys smaller percentage of service/good. Therefore, when prices rise and currencies fall, you have inflation. The purchasing power is the expression of the value of currencies. Purchasing power, is the amount of tangible/real goods/services the money can buy at a moment in time. When there’s inflation, there’s decline in the purchasing power of money.

According to Crowther, “Inflation is State in which the Value of Money is Falling and the Prices are rising.”

In Economics, the word ‘inflation’ refers to General rise in Prices Measured against a Standard Level of Purchasing Power.

 

Example –

In 2014 1 Kg of Rice = Rs 40

In 2016 1 Kg of Rice = Rs 60

The above increase in price of rice. The purchasing power of money has decline as the same amount of good is available at higher price. Hence, the above price rise of rice over a period of time is called as inflation that is affecting the purchasing power of the people .This in turn reduces the value of money as for each commodity we have to spend more than the previous one.

 

What causes inflation?

There’s no single theory behind the cause of inflation that economists/academics agree upon. However, there are a few commonly held hypotheses:

1. Demand-pull inflation

This theory can be summarized as “too much money chasing too few goods”. It is a mismatch between demand and supply , if demand is growing faster than supply, prices will increase. This usually occurs in growing economies as more people gain purchasing power while the supply is not able to catch up to growing demand.When the government of a country print money in excess, prices increase to keep up with the increase in currency, leading to inflation.

 

2. Cost-push inflation

According to cost-push inflation, inflation is caused when production costs of companies rise. When production costs (taxes, wages, imports, etc.) increase, companies increase the prices of their goods/services to maintain their profit margins.

 

3. Monetary inflation

According to this theory, inflation is caused by the excessive supply of money in economies. Prices of commodities are determined by their demand & supply. When the supply is excess, the prices of commodities go down. If the commodity is money, excess supply of money reduces its value and the result is that the prices of everything else priced in currencies (dollars, rupees, etc.) must go up.

 

What are the different types of inflation?

A. Creeping inflation:

Creeping is a mild inflation, which occurs when there is price rise of 3% or less a year. According to the Federal Reserve, when there’s a rise of 2% or less in prices, it benefits the economic growth. The creeping inflation makes consumers expect that the prices will keep increasing, which in turn boosts demand for goods and services, as consumers now want to buy a lot to beat the future prices. And this, is how creeping inflation drives economic expansion. This is also the reason for Federal Reserve to set 2% as its target inflation rate.

 

B. Walking inflation:

Walking is a stronger inflation, somewhere with price rise between 3% to 10% a year. Walking inflation is harmful to the economy, as it accelerates economic growth (too fast). As a result consumers start purchasing goods/services more than their requirement to avoid higher future prices. This further increases the demand so much that it’s challenging for suppliers to keep up with the demands. This results in common services/goods being priced out of reach of most people.

 

C. Galloping inflation:

When inflation rises to 10% of more, there’s a havoc wrecked on the economy. The currencies lose value so drastically that incomes of employees and business can’t keep up with prices and costs. This leads to instability in the Economy and loss in credibility of the government leaders. This is the type of inflation that must be prevented at all costs.

 

D. Hyperinflation:

Increase in inflation beyond the inflation range of 2 or 3%, could lead to hyperinflation, a condition where inflation quickly rises out of control. Hyperinflation occurs when prices skyrocket more than 50% a month. Hyperinflation is a rare phenomenon. Some examples of hyperinflation are Germany in 1920s, Zimbabwe in 2000s and America during its civil war.

 

E. Stagflation:

Stagflation is when the growth in economy becomes stagnant, but there’s still price inflation. This seemingly contradictory phenomena is rare like hyperinflation, but can create havoc in economy by combining high unemployment rate, severe inflation and poor economic growth. Stagflation is a huge challenge to Central banks, due to increase in risks associated with monetary policy responses and fiscal. Central banks usually increase interest rates to combat high inflation, but doing so during stagflation could increase unemployment further. Therefore, central banks need to keep a limit on their ability to decrease rates during stagflation. Possibly the most difficult inflation to manage.

 

F. Core inflation:

This type of inflation measures the rising prices of all commodities except energy and food, due to the fact that gas prices increase every summer.

 

G. Wage inflation:

Wage inflation occurs when wages of workers rise faster than the cost of living. Wage inflation occurs when there are labor unions demanding higher wages, when workers control their pay or when there’s a shortage of workers.

 

H. Asset inflation:

Asset inflation refers to increase in prices of one asset class (gold, oil, housing, etc.). Asset inflation is often overlooked by inflation watchers when the overall inflation is low.

 

I. Suppressed Inflation:

Existing inflation disguised by government Price controls or other interference in the economy such as subsidies. Such suppression, nevertheless, can only be temporary because no governmental measure can completely contain accelerating inflation in the long run. It is Also Called Repressed Inflation.

 

Effect of Inflation –

a) They add inefficiencies in the market, and make it difficult for companies to budget or plan long-term.

b) Uncertainty about the future purchasing power of money discourages investment and saving.

c) There can also be negative impacts to trade from an increased instability in currency exchange prices caused by unpredictable inflation.

d) Higher income tax rates.

e) Inflation rate in the economy is higher than rates in other countries; this will increase imports and reduce exports, leading to a deficit in the balance of trade.

 

Measurement of Inflation

Inflation is measured by calculating the percentage rate of change of a price index, which is called the inflation rate.

Inflation is often measured either in terms of Wholesale Price Index or in terms of Consumer Price Index.

 

Wholesale Price Index(WPI) :

The Wholesale Price Index is an indicator designed to measure the changes in the price levels of commodities that flow into the wholesale trade intermediaries. The index is a vital guide in economic analysis and Policy formulation. It is a basis for price adjustments in business contracts and projects. It is also intended to serve as an additional source of information for comparisons on the international front.

 

Consumer Price Index (CPI):

Consumer price index is specific to particular group in the population. It shows the cost of living of the group. It is based on the changes in the retail prices of goods or services. Based on their incomes, consumer spends money on these particular set of goods and services. There are different consumer price indices. Each index tracks the changes in the retail prices for different set of consumers.

 

Consequences of Inflation –

Adverse effect on production

Adverse effect on distribution of income

Obstacle to development

Changes in relative prices

Adverse effect on the B.O.P (Balance of Payment)

 

Measures of Inflation –

Monetary policy

Credit Control

Demonetization of Currency

Issue of New Currency

 

Fiscal policy

Reduction in Unnecessary Expenditure

Increase in Taxes

Increase in Savings

Surplus Budgets

Public Debt

 

Other Measures

To Increase Production

Rational Wage Policy

Price Control

 

Inflation a threat to Indian economy -

a) Inflation has become a household name for millions of Indians who are finding it extremely difficult to make both ends meet. Prices are growing faster than the household income almost for all products and services including real estate, food, transportation, luxuries.

b) The global economic crisis saw many economies stumble but India rebounded faster and was surging ahead with a growth rate of 9%. But the inflationary pressure is forcing the government to adopt measures which are taking the steam out of the Indian growth story

c) For the last two years India is witnessing double digit food inflation which had reached a high of around 18% in December 2010 with prices of onions, garlic and tomatoes skyrocketing. Lentils, milk and meat have witnessed a steady rise in prices which is putting pressure on the home budget of millions of Indians.

d) Millions of poor people in India are struggling to arrange a two-square meal for their family members. We are running the risk of having an entire generation of malnourished children who are otherwise considered the future of India.

e) The tightening of the economy may control inflation in the long run but it is also slowing our economy and as predicted by the IMF India’s growth will be only around 6-7% instead of 9%.

 

Current status of inflation in India –

  • Currently inflation rate is around 9.44% in India, much above the acceptable rate of 5%.
  • The food price index is at 8.31% causing much discomfort to the policymakers. which under the current scenario seems impossible.

 

How to Control Inflation

Monetary Measures –

  • Credit Control
  • Issue of new currency

 

Fiscal Measures –

  • Reduction in Unnecessary Expenditure
  • Increase in taxes
  • Increase in savings
  • Surplus Budgets
  • Public Debts
  • To increase in production
  • Rational wage policy
  • Price control
  • Rationing

Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana

Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana

17189   02-Apr-2019, Tue

Under PMKVY (2015-16)

  1. 13,000 training centers opened across India Training in 375 trades.
  2. 19.85 Lakh youth trained part of PMKVY (2015-2016) (updated)

Placement was not a feature of PMKVY 1, neither was it tracked. The number mentioned is record of voluntary information shared by TPs and thus shouldn’t be counted as an achievement.

Under PMKVY -2 (2016-20)

  1. More than 5,700 training centres opened across India
  2. More than 16 lakh candidates trained
  3. Model training centres known as Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Kendras (PMKK) are being opened in every district across India 
  4. Physical target of 20.5 lakh approved for 35 states/UT costing to INR 3000 crore till 2020
  5. 6.01 lakh training to be implemented through state/UTs by March’18
  6. Additional target of 20 lakh allocated for enrolment and training by training providers
  7. Women constitute approx. 50% of all enrolled candidates under PMKVY

STARTUP INDIA

STARTUP INDIA

6613   02-Apr-2019, Tue

Startup India Movement launched on 16th January 2016 for promotion of Entrepreneurship among youth.

  1. Action plan unveiled for encouraging startups.
  2. Tax relief for three consecutive years out of a block of seven year for startups.
  3. Start-up Fund of Rs. 10,000 Crore to be released over two Finance Commission cycles, that is, by 2025.
  4. Startups are allowed to issue ESOPs to promoters working as employees

Startups approved

  1. 4536 Startup applications have been recognized as Startups by DIPP as on 12th October, 2017
  2. 74 Startups have been approved by IMB for availing tax benefit
  3. 450+ Startups have been mentored for incubation and funding support by Startup India Hub

Start-up India, a flagship initiative of the Government of India, intended to build a strong eco-system for nurturing innovation and Start-ups in the country that will drive sustainable economic growth and generate large scale employment opportunities.

 

In order to meet the objectives of the scheme, the corporation has taken following initiatives:

  1. Nurturing Creativity and Innovation by institutionalizing Meritorious Innovation Awards
  2. Transferred about 120 technologies to various entrepreneurs/ Start-ups, contributing significantly to Start up India
  3. NRDC is assisting DIPP in evaluating the innovation content in the start-up applications for recognizing start-ups and recommending the eligible start-ups for tax exemption and other benefits.
  4. Designated by DIPP as Government Facilitator for IP filings for Start-Ups
  5. Partnered with MoMSME-UNIDO (GCIP) for evaluating the award proposals for innovativeness
  6. Managing and Monitoring Indian Oil and GAIL Start-up Scheme
  7. NRDC organized a Contest for Demonstrating Innovative Prototypes for Start-Ups during the two-day NRDC annual conference on “Leveraging Innovation Ecosystem for Accelerating Start-ups”.

New Development Bank  (BRICS Bank )

New Development Bank  (BRICS Bank )

21033   15-Jul-2018, Sun

The New Development Bank BRICS (NDB BRICS), formerly referred to as the BRICS Development Bank, is multilateral development bank operated by the BRICS states (Brazil, Russia, India, China and South Africa) as an alternative to the existing US-dominated World Bank and International Monetary Fund. It has headquarters in Shanghai, China.
The Bank is set up to boost infrastructure funding in the emerging economies and offer them tailor-made services.

Making of BRICS Bank:

The BRICS countries in the 4th BRICS summit held in Delhi in 2012 came up with the idea of setting up the bank. It was then proposed by India.

Then at the 5th BRICS summit held in Durban, South Africa in 2013, all BRICS countries agreed to set up a Development bank.

Then at the 6th BRICS summit held in Fortaleza, Brazil, the BRICS countries signed the Agreement on the New Development Bank, which makes provisions for the legal basis of the bank.

The 7th BRICS summit in July 2015 held in Ufa, Russia marked the entry into force of the Agreement.

In July 2015, the bank was launched with K. V. Kamath from India as the first President of the Bank for the first five years.

Some facts about NDB BRICS:

The founding members of the Bank are the Federative Republic of Brazil, the Russian Federation, the Republic of India, the People’s Republic of China and the Republic of South Africa.

The membership shall be open to members of the United Nations, in accordance with the provisions of the Articles of Agreement of the New Development Bank.

The New Development Bank shall have an initial subscribed capital of US$ 50 billion and an initial authorized capital of US$ 100 billion.

Each BRICS member will contribute an equal share in establishing a startup capital.

All BRICS countries hold equal number of shares and have equal voting rights.

The Bank will have its Headquarters in Shanghai. The Bank may establish offices necessary for the performance of its functions. The first regional office shall be in Johannesburg.

The Bank shall have a Board of Governors, a Board of Directors, a President and Vice-Presidents. The President of the Bank shall be elected from one of the founding members on a rotational basis, and there shall be at least one Vice President from each of the other founding members.

List of national symbols and what do they represent

List of national symbols and what do they represent

8800   10-Jul-2018, Tue

 

National symbols of a country represent a host of objects that paint a unique identity about the country’s sensibilities. Representatives are chosen carefully and each depicts a certain virtue that is distinctive characteristic of the country. The rich heritage of India is a result of assimilation of cultural influences from its invaders through the generations. Ours is a multi-faceted culture and the various facets of our heritage require appropriate representation. India has many national symbols with which it identifies itself and takes pride in them. These symbols have been chosen from India’s unique flora and fauna, and its culture and civilization. In a nutshell, these symbols say a lot about India. These symbols are intrinsic to the Indian identity and heritage. Indians of all demographics backgrounds across the world are proud of these National Symbols as they instill a sense of pride and patriotism in every Indian’s heart.

Here is some more information about the national symbols of India:

National Emblem: The National Emblem of India is an adaptation of the Buddhist Lion capital of Ashoka at Sarnath, near Varanasi in Uttar Pradesh.

National Animal: The Tiger is the National Animal of India. It is the symbol of India’s wealth of wildlife. The magnificent tiger, Panthera tigris is a striped animal.

National Bird: The Peacock (Pavo Cristatus), is the National Bird of India. It is the symbol of qualities like beauty and grace.

National Flag: The National Flag is a horizontal tricolour of deep saffron (Kesari) at the top, white in the middle and the dark green at the bottom and a blue wheel (chakra) with 24 sticks at the centre.

National Fruit: The Mango (Mangiferra Indica) is the National Fruit. It has been cultivated in India since time immemorial.

National Tree: The National Tree of India is the Banyan (Ficus bengalensis) Tree. This huge tree towers over its neighbors and has the widest trunk.

National Sport: Sport Field Hockey, in which India has an impressive record with eight Olympic medals, is considered as the National Sport. However, Home Ministry has said that officially, no sport has been accorded, the status of national Sport.

National Anthem: Jana-Gana-Mana. . the song was composed originally in Bengali by Rabindranath Tagore, adopted in its Hindi version is our National Anthem.

National Song: The song Vande Mataram, composed in Sanskrit by Bankimchandra Chatterji, is our National song.

National Calender: The National Calender based on the Saka Era with Chaitra as its first month and a normal year of 365 days was adopted from 22nd March, 1957.

National Flower: Lotus, scientifically known as Nelumbo nucifera is the National Flower of India.

Other National Symbols of India

National Sentence: Satyamev Jayate
Father of the Nation: Mahatma Gandhi
National Foreign Policy: Non-Alignment
National Information Letter: White Letter
National Currency: Rupee

National Festivals:

Republic Day (26th January)
Independence Day (15th August)
Gandhi Jayanti (2nd October)
National River: Ganga
National Aquatic Animal: Dolphin (Platanista gangetica) 
National Heritage Animal: Elephant

Name of all the approved stock exchange in India

Name of all the approved stock exchange in India

2940   30-Jun-2018, Sat

Name of all the approved stock exchange in India is given below:-
1. U.P. Stock Exchange, Kanpur
2. Vadodara Stock Exchange, Vadodara 
3. Koyambtour Stock Exchange, Coimbatore 
4. Meerut Stock Exchange, Meerut
5. Mumbai Stock Exchange, Mumbai
6. Over the Counter Exchange of India, Mumbai
7. National Stock Exchange, Mumbai 
8. Ahmedabad Stock Exchange, Ahmedabad 
9. Bangalore Stock Exchange, Bangalore 
10. Bhubaneshwar Stock Exchange, Bhubaneshwar 
11. Calcutta Stock Exchange, Kolkata
12. Cochin Stock Exchange, Cochin 
13. Delhi Stock Exchange, Delhi 
14. Guwahati Stock Exchange, Guwahati 
15. Hyderabad Stock Exchange, Hyderabad 
16. Jaipur Stock Exchange, Jaipur 
17. Canara Stock Exchange, Mangalore 
18. Ludhiana Stock Exchange, Ludhiana 
19. Chennai Stock Exchange, Chennai 
20. M. P. Stock Exchange, Indore 
21. Magadh Stock Exchange, Patna
22. Pune Stock Exchange, Pune 
23. Capital Stock Exchange Kerala Ltd.,Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala

On July 9, 2007 SEBI has withdrawn its approval from Saurashtra Stock Exchange, Rajkot due to its passive working. Hence the number of approved stock exchanges have come down to 23.

Important Lines and Boundaries


2003   27-Jun-2018, Wed

Important Lines and Boundaries

Marginal Line : 320 km line of fortification on the Russia-Finland border

Line of Actual Control : India  & China on the Northern Border

Line of Control : India and Pakistan

Durand Line : Afghanistan and Pakistan

Radcliffe Line : India and Pakistan (its includes Bangladesh Line)

Blue Line : Isreal & Lebanon

Purple Line : Israel and Syria

Green Line : Israel and its neighbours (Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon and Syria)

Mason–Dixon line : Maryland and Pennsylvania/Delaware in Colonial America

Curzon Line : Poland & Russia

Military Demarcation Line (MDL) or Armistice Line : North Korea and South Korea

McMohan Line : India & China

Maginot Line : France & Germany

Mannar haime line : Russia & Finland

Order Neisse Line : Germany & Poland (aftermath of World War II)

Hindenburg Line : Poland & Germany (at the time of First World War)

 Sigfried Line East : France & Germany (at the time of second world war)

16 Parallel North : Angola and Namibia

17th Parallel Line : North & South Vietnam

20 Parallel North : Libya & Sudan

22 Parallel North : Egypt & Sudan

25 Parallel North : Mauritania & Mali

26 Parallel North : Western Sahara & Mauritania

31 Parallel North : Iraq & Iran

35 Parallel North : US it serves as border b/w Tennessee/Mississippi, Tennnessee/Alabama, Tennesse/Georgia, North Carolina/Georgia

36 Parallel North : In the US it Forms forms the southernmost boundary of the state of Missouri with the state of Arkansas

38 Parallel North Line : North  & South Korea

40 Parallel North : US it serves as border b/w Nebraska & Kansas

41 Parallel North : US it forms the border b/w wyoming/utah border, Wyoming/colorado, Nebraska/Colorado.

42 Parallel North : US it serves as border of new york & Pennsylvania Border

43 Parallel North : US it serves as border of b/w State Nebraska & state of south Dakota

45 Parallel North : US it forms the boundary b/w Montana & wyoming

49 Parallel North (Medicine Line) : USA & Canada

Highlight Of 15th Census Of India – 2011

Highlight Of 15th Census Of India – 2011

24664   24-Jun-2018, Sun

Census 2011

Census is nothing but a process of collecting, compiling, analyzing, evaluating, publishing and disseminating statistical data regarding the population. It covers demographic, social and economic data and are provided as of a particular date. Census is useful for formulation of development policies and plans and demarcating constituencies for elections. The Census of India has been conducted 15 times, As of 2011. It has been conducted every 10 years, beginning in 1871.

In Exam point of view, Questions related to Census is very common in all kinds of competitive exams. In every exam, we can expect a minimum of one or two questions from Census. Here is the simple and perfectly categorized 2011 Census of India.

  1. Census 2011 were released in New Delhi on 31st March 2011 by Union Home Secretary GK Pillai and RGI C Chandramouli.
  2. Census 2011 was the 15th census of india & 7th census after Independece
  3. The motto of census 2011 was “Our Census, Our future”.
  4. Total estimated cost of the Census was INR2200 crore (US$350 million).
  5. First census in 1872.
  6. Present Registrar General & Census Commissioner – C.Chandra Mouli
  7. Total Population – 1,210,569,573 (1.21 Billion)
  8. India in 2nd rank in population with 17.64%. decadal growth & China is 1st rank with decadal growth 19% (over 1.35 billion)
  9. World Population is 7 Billions
  10. Increase in population during 2001 – 2011 is 181 Million

Population – 1210.19 million [Males – 623.7 million (51.54%) Females – 586.46 million (48.46%)]

            Top Populous of the Country
1 Uttar Pradesh 19,98,12,341
2 Maharashtra 11,23,74,333
3 Bihar 10,40,99,452
4 West Bengal 9,12,76,115
5 Andhra Pradesh 8,45,80,777
           Least Populous of the Country
1 Lakshadweep 64,473
2 Daman and Diu 2,43,247
3 Dadra and Nagar Haveli 3,43,709
4 Andaman and Nicobar Islands 3,80,581
5 Sikkim 6,10,577

Population Highlight

Highest Populous UT Delhi
Least Populous UT Lakshadweep
Highest Populous state Uttar Pradesh
Least populous state Sikkim
Highest urban Population in india (state& UT) Maharashtra – 4,11,00,980
Lowest urban Population in india (state& UT) Lakshadweep – 26,967
Highest Rular Population in india (state& UT) Uttar Pradesh – 13,16,58,339
Lowest Rular Population in india (state& UT) Lakshadweep – 33,683

Sex Ratio (Females per 1000 Males)

Sex ratio in India 943
Highest sex ratio in state Kerala (1084)
Lowest sex ratio in state Haryana (879)
Highest sex ratio in UT Pondicherry (1037)
Lowest sex ratio in UT Daman and Diu (618)
Child (0-6 years) sex ratio 914
Highest child (0-6) sex ratio in state Mizoram (971)
Lowest child (0-6) sex ratio in state Haryana (830)

Literacy Rate in India

Total Person Literacy Rate 74%
Males 82.14%
Females 65.46%
Highest Literacy Rate in State Kerala (94%)
Lowest Literacy Rate in State Bihar (61.8%)
Hightest Literacy Rate in UT Lakshadweep (91%)
Lowest Literacy Rate in UT Dadra and Nagar Haveli (76.24%)

List Of Mergers & Acquisitions Of Bank In India

List Of Mergers & Acquisitions Of Bank In India

5188   24-Jun-2018, Sun

From 2010 to 2017
Name of the Banks Acquired  Name of the Banks got Merged Year of Merging happened
State Bank of India Bharatiya Mahila Bank (BMB) 2017
State Bank of India State Bank of Travancore (SBT) 2017
State Bank of India State Bank of Bikaner and Jaipur (SBBJ) 2017
State Bank of India State Bank of Hyderabad (SBH) 2017
State Bank of India State Bank of Mysore (SBM) 2017
State Bank of India State Bank of Patiala (SBP) 2017
Kotak Mahindra Bank ING Vyasa Bank 2014
ICICI Bank Bank of Rajasthan Ltd. 2010

 

From 2000 to 2009
Name of the Banks Acquired Name of the Banks got Merged Year of Merging happened
HDFC Bank Centurion Bank of Punjab 2008
ICICI Bank Ltd Sangli Bank 2007
Indian Overseas Bank Bharat Overseas Bank 2007
Centurion Bank of Punjab Lord Krishna Bank 2006
Federal Bank Ganesh Bank of Kurandwad 2006
 Nainital Bank Bank of Baroda 2006
IDBI Ltd United Western Bank 2006
IDBI Ltd IDBI Bank 2005
Bank of Punjab(POB) Centurion Bank 2005
Bank of Baroda South Gujarat Local Area Bank 2004
Oriental Bank of Commerce Global Trust Bank 2004
Punjab National Bank Nedungadi Bank Ltd. 2003
ICICI Bank ICICI Ltd. 2002
Bank of Baroda Benares State Bank Ltd. 2002
ICICI Bank Ltd Bank of Madura Ltd 2001
HDFC Bank Ltd. Times Bank Ltd. 2000

 

From 1990 to 1999
Name of the Banks Acquired Name of the Banks got Merged Year of Merging happened
Bank of Baroda Bareilly Corporation Bank Ltd. 1999
Union Bank of India Sikkim Bank Ltd. 1999
Oriental Bank of Commerce Bari Doab Bank Ltd. 1997
Oriental Bank of Commerce Punjab Co-operative Bank Ltd. 1996
State Bank of India Kashinath State Bank Ltd 1995
Bank of India Bank of Karad Ltd. 1994
Punjab National Bank New Bank of India 1993
 Bank Of India Parur Central Bank Ltd. 1990
Central Bank Of India  Purbanchal Bank Ltd. 1990
Indian Bank Bank of Thanjavur Ltd. 1990
Indian Overseas Bank Bank of Tamilnadu Ltd 1990

 

Before 1990
Name of the Banks Acquired Name of the Banks got Merged Year of Merging happened
Allahabad Bank United Industrial Bank Limited 1989
Bank of Baroda Traders Bank Ltd 1988
Punjab National Bank Hindustan Commercial Bank Ltd 1986
State Bank of India Bank of Cochin Ltd 1985
Canara Bank Lakshmi Commercial Bank Ltd 1985
Union Bank of India Miraj State Bank Ltd 1985
State Bank of India National Bank of Lahore Ltd 1970
State Bank of India Bank of Bihar Ltd 1969

List Important International Organizations And Their Headquarters

List Important International Organizations And Their Headquarters

11620   24-Jun-2018, Sun

  1. World Trade Organization (WTO) –
  • Headquarters – Geneva, Switzerland
  • Head – Roberto Azevedo
  • Founded on – 1 January, 1995
  1. World Health Organization (WHO) –
  • Headquarters – Geneva, Switzerland
  • Head – Dr Margaret Chan
  • Founded on – 7 April, 1948
  1. World Economic Forum (WEF) –
  • Headquarters – Geneva, Switzerland
  • Head – Klaus Schwab
  • Founded on – 1971
  1. International Labour Organisation (ILO) – 
  • Headquarters – Geneva, Switzerland
  • Head – Guy Ryder
  • Founded on – 1919
  1. United Nations Conference on Trade & Development (UNCTAD) –
  • Headquarters – Geneva, Switzerland
  • Head – MukhisaKituyi
  • Founded on – 1964
  1. World Meteorological Organisation (WMO) –
  • Headquarters – Geneva, Switzerland
  • Head – Michel Jarraud
  • Founded on – 1950
  1. International Monetary Fund (IMF) –
  • Headquarters – Washington DC, US
  • Head – Christine Lagarde
  • Founded on – 27 December, 1945
  1. The World Bank –
  • Headquarters – Washington DC, US
  • Founded on – July, 1944
  • President- Jim Young Kim
  1. United Nations Organization (UN) –
  • Headquarters – New York, US
  • Secretary general– Ban Ki-moon
  • Founded on – 1945
  1. United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) –
  • Headquarters – New York, US
  • Head – Anthony Lake
  • Founded on – December, 1946
  1. United Nations Education Scientific & Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) –
  • Headquarters – Paris, France
  • Head – Irina Bokova
  • Founded on – 16 November, 1945
  1. Organisation for Economic Cooperation & Development (OECD) –
  • Headquarters – Paris, France
  • Head – Jose Angel Gurria
  • Founded on – 30 September, 1961
  1. North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) –
  • Headquarters – Brussels, Belgium
  • Head – Philip M. Breedlove
  • Founded on – 4 April, 1949
  1. International Maritime Organisation (IMO) –
  • Headquarters – London, UK
  • Head – Ki Tack Lim
  • Founded on – 1959
  1. International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) –
  • Headquarters – Vienna, Austria
  • Head – Yukiya Amano
  • Founded on – July 29, 1957
  1. Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) –
  • Headquarters – Vienna, Austria
  • Head – Diezani Alison-Madueke
  • Founded on – 1961-62
  1. International Olympic Committee (IOC) –
  • Headquarters – Lausanne, Switzerland 
  • Head – Thomas Bach
  • Founded on – 23 June, 1894
  1. Food & Agricultural Organisation (FAO) –
  • Headquarters – Rome, Italy
  • Head – Jose Graziano da Silva
  • Founded on -16 October, 1945

National Parks in India

The National Parks in India

8385   18-Jun-2018, Mon

National Parks in India

 

Name

State

1. Bandhavgarh National Park

Madhya Pradesh

2. Kanha National Park

Madhya Pradesh

3. Panna National Park

Madhya Pradesh

4. Pench National Park

Madhya Pradesh

5. Thattekkad Bird Sanctuary

Kerala

6. Idukki Wildlife Sanctuary

Kerala

7. Eravikulam National Park

Kerala

8. Kumarakom Bird Sanctuary

Kerala

9. Periyar Wildlife Sanctuary

Kerala

10. Sariska Wildlife Sanctuary

Rajasthan

11. Bharatpur Bird Sanctuary

Rajasthan

12. Keoladeo National Park

Rajasthan

13. Nagarhole National Park

Rajasthan

14. Ranthambore National Park

Rajasthan

15. Sambhar Wildlife Sanctuary

Rajasthan

16. Rajaji National Park

Uttarakhand

17. Corbett National Park

Uttarakhand

18. Manas National Park

Assam

19. Kaziranga National Park

Assam

20. Sanjay Gandhi Wildlife Sanctuary

Maharashtra

21. Mahim Nature Park

Maharashtra

22. Dachigam National Park

J&K

23. Hemis High Altitude Park

J&K

24. Chilka Lake Bird Sanctuary

Odisha

25. Nandankanan Zoo

Odisha

26. Similipal National Park

Odisha

27. Bandipur National Park

Karnataka

28. Dandeli National Park

Karnataka

29. Dudhwa National Park

Uttar Pradesh

30. Gir National Park

Gujarat

31. Mudumalai Wildlife Sanctuary

Tamilnadu

32. Nagarjunasagar Wildlife Sanctuary

Telangana

33. Renuka Wildlife Sanctuary

Himachal Pradesh

34. Sultanpur Bird Sanctuary

Haryana (Gurgoan)

35. Sunderbans Tiger Reserve

West Bengal


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